Pharmacokinetics of single oral dose of pimobendan in hispaniolan amazon parrots (amazona ventralis)

David Guzman, Hugues Beaufrère, Butch Kukanich, Steven A. Barker, João Brandão, Joanne R Paul-Murphy, Thomas N. Tully

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Pimobendan is a phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitor and calcium sensitizer with inotropic, lusitropic, and rasodilator properties used in the treatment of congestive heart failure. The mechanism of action is by inhibition of PDE III and V and by increasing intracellular calcium sensitivity in the cardiac myocardium. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies have been published in humans, dogs, and cats, but there are no studies in avian species. Pimobendan has been used in birds at the empirical dosage of 0.25 mg/kg q12h. To determine the pharmacokinetic parameters of pimobendan in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 3 pilot studies with 2 birds, each receiving 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg PO, provided the basis for the pivotal trials with 6 birds, each receiving 10 mg/kg PO using 2 different suspensions. Blood samples were obtained at 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 8, 12, and 18 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) by use of electrospray ionization. Because of the erratic and low concentrations of pimobendan, pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using naive averaged analysis. Plasma concentrations after commercial pimobendan tablet suspension at 10 mg/kg reached a Cmax of 8.26 ng/mL at 3 hours with a terminal half-life of 2.1 hours, while concentrations after the bulk chemical suspension reached a Cmax of 1.28 ng/mL at 12 hours and had a terminal half-life of 2.3 hours. Further studies evaluating the effect of oral pimobendan in parrots are needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)95-101
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Avian Medicine and Surgery
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2014


  • Amazona ventralis
  • avian
  • congestive heart failure
  • Hispaniolan Amazon parrots
  • inotropic
  • pharmacokinetic
  • pimobendan
  • psittacine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals


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