Pharmacokinetics of long-acting nalbuphine decanoate after intramuscular administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis)

David Guzman, Butch KuKanich, Timothy D. Heath, Lisa A. Krugner-Higby, Steven A. Barker, Carolyn S. Brown, Joanne R Paul-Murphy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Objective-To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of nalbuphine decanoate after IM administration to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals-9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots of unknown sex. Procedures-Nalbuphine decanoate (37.5 mg/kg) was administered IM to all birds. Plasma samples were obtained from blood collected before (time 0) and 0.25, 1, 2, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours after drug administration. Plasma samples were used for measurement of nalbuphine concentrations via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated with computer software. Results-Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine increased rapidly after IM administration, with a mean concentration of 46.1 ng/mL at 0.25 hours after administration. Plasma concentrations of nalbuphine remained > 20 ng/mL for at least 24 hours in all birds. The maximum plasma concentration was 109.4 ng/mL at 2.15 hours. The mean terminal half-life was 20.4 hours. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, plasma concentrations of nalbuphine were prolonged after IM administration of nalbuphine decanoate, compared with previously reported results after administration of nalbuphine hydrochloride. Plasma concentrations that could be associated with antinociception were maintained for 24 hours after IM administration of 37.5 mg of nalbuphine decanoate/kg. Safety and analgesic efficacy of nalbuphine treatments in this species require further investigation to determine the potential for clinical use in pain management in psittacine species.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)191-195
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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