Pharmacokinetics of Intravenous Lorazepam in Pediatric Patients with and without Status Epilepticus

James M. Chamberlain, Edmund V. Capparelli, Kathleen M. Brown, Cheryl Vance, Kathleen Lillis, Prashant Mahajan, Richard Lichenstein, Rachel M. Stanley, Colleen O. Davis, Stephen Gordon, Jill M. Baren, John N. Van Den Anker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

21 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the single dose pharmacokinetics of an intravenous dose of lorazepam in pediatric patients treated for status epilepticus (SE) or with a history of SE. Study design: Ten hospitals in the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network enlisted patients 3 months to 17 years with convulsive SE (status cohort) or for a traditional pharmacokinetics study (elective cohort). Sparse sampling was used for the status cohort, and intensive sampling was used for the elective cohort. Non-compartmental analyses were performed on the elective cohort, and served to nest compartmental population pharmacokinetics analysis for both cohorts. Results: A total of 48 patients in the status cohort and 15 patients in the elective cohort were enrolled. Median age was 7 years, 2 months. The population pharmacokinetics parameters were: clearance, 1.2 mL/min/kg; half-life, 16.8 hours; and volume of distribution, 1.5 L/kg. On the basis of the pharmacokinetics model, a 0.1 mg/kg dose is expected to achieve concentrations of approximately 100 ng/mL and maintain concentrations >30 to 50 ng/mL for 6 to 12 hours. A second dose of 0.05 mg/kg would achieve desired therapeutic serum levels for approximately 12 hours without excessive sedation. Age-dependent dosing is not necessary beyond using a maximum initial dose of 4 mg. Conclusions: Lorazepam pharmacokinetics in convulsive SE is similar to earlier pharmacokinetics measured in pediatric patients with cancer, except for longer half-life, and similar to adult pharmacokinetics parameters except for increased clearance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Pediatrics
Volume160
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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