Pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone after intravenous and intramuscular administration in male rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

Kristi R. Kelly, Bruno H Pypendop, Kari L. Christe

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11 Scopus citations


This study reports the pharmacokinetics of hydromorphone after intravenous and intramuscular administration to rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Hydromorphone (0.075 mg/kg) was administered intravenously as a bolus or intramuscularly on separate occasions to healthy, socially housed, socially reared, adult, intact male rhesus macaques (n = 4). Blood samples were collected prior to and until 10 h after administration. Serum hydromorphone concentrations were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Compartment models were fit to time-concentration data. A 3-compartment model with input in and elimination from the central compartment best fit intravenous data, whereas a 1-comparment model best fit intramuscular data. After intravenous administration, the median clearance and terminal half-life were 37.7 (range, 33.7 to 47.1) mL/kg/min and 142 (range, 131 to 218) min, respectively. The median (range) elimination half-life after intramuscular administration was 81.5 (77.2 to 92.5) min. Median intramuscular bioavailability was 92% (range, 75% to 104%). Rhesus macaques maintained concentrations greater than or equal to 4.0 ng/mL for at least 2 h after intravenous and intramuscular administration. The disposition of hydromorphone was characterized by a large volume of distribution and moderate clearance. Intramuscular administration resulted in rapid and almost complete drug absorption. Whole-body pruritus, sedation, and decreased appetite were observed in all macaques after initial drug administration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)512-516
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science
Issue number5
StatePublished - Sep 1 2014

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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