Pharmacokinetics of grapiprant administered to red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis) after food was withheld for 24 hours

Paula Rodriguez, Joanne R. Paul-Murphy, Heather K. Knych, Tracy L. Drazenovich, Michelle Hawkins

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE: To identify an oral dose of grapiprant for red-tailed hawks (RTHAs; Buteo jamaicensis) that would achieve a plasma concentration > 164 ng/mL, which is considered therapeutic for dogs with osteoarthritis. ANIMALS: 6 healthy adult RTHAs. PROCEDURES: A preliminary study, in which grapiprant (4 mg/kg [n = 2], 11 mg/kg [2], or 45 mg/kg [2]) was delivered into the crop of RTHAs from which food had been withheld for 24 hours, was performed to obtained pharmacokinetic data for use with modeling software to simulate results for grapiprant doses of 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 mg/kg. Simulation results directed our selection of the grapiprant dose administered to the RTHAs in a single-dose study. Plasma grapiprant concentration, body weight, and gastrointestinal signs of RTHAs were monitored. RESULTS: On the basis of results from the preliminary study and simulations, a grapiprant dose of 30 mg/kg was used in the single-dose study. The geometric mean maximum observed plasma concentration of grapiprant was 3,184 ng/mL, time to maximum plasma grapiprant concentration was 2.0 hours, and the harmonic mean terminal half-life was 17.1 hours. No substantial adverse effects were observed. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Although the single dose of grapiprant (30 mg/kg) delivered into the crop achieved plasma concentrations > 164 ng/mL in the RTHAs, it was unknown whether this concentration would be therapeutic for birds. Further research that incorporates multidose assessments, safety monitoring, and pharmacodynamic data collection is warranted on the use of grapiprant in RTHAs from which food was withheld versus not withheld.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)912-919
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican journal of veterinary research
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)


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