Pharmacokinetics of detomidine following intravenous or oral-transmucosal administration and sedative effects of the oral-transmucosal treatment in dogs

Kristen M. Messenger, Marie Hopfensperger, Heather K Knych, Mark G. Papich

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9 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE To determine the pharmacokinetics of detomidine hydrochloride administered IV (as an injectable formulation) or by the oral-transmucosal (OTM) route (as a gel) and assess sedative effects of the OTM treatment in healthy dogs. ANIMALS 12 healthy adult dogs. PROCEDURES In phase 1, detomidine was administered by IV (0.5 mg/m2) or OTM (1 mg/ m2) routes to 6 dogs. After a 24-hour washout period, each dog received the alternate treatment. Blood samples were collected for quantification via liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and pharmacokinetic analysis. In phase 2, 6 dogs received dexmedetomidine IV (0.125 mg/m2) or detomidine gel by OTM administration (0.5 mg/m2), and sedation was measured by a blinded observer using 2 standardized sedation scales while dogs underwent jugular catheter placement. After a 1-week washout period, each dog received the alternate treatment. RESULTS Median maximum concentration, time to maximum concentration, and bioavailability for detomidine gel following OTM administration were 7.03 ng/ mL, 1.00 hour, and 34.52%, respectively; harmonic mean elimination half-life was 0.63 hours. All dogs were sedated and became laterally recumbent with phase 1 treatments. In phase 2, median global sedation score following OTM administration of detomidine gel was significantly lower (indicating a lesser degree of sedation) than that following IV dexmedetomidine treatment; however, total sedation score during jugular vein catheterization did not differ between treatments. The gel was subjectively easy to administer, and systemic absorption was sufficient for sedation. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Detomidine gel administered by the OTM route provided sedation suitable for a short, minimally invasive procedure in healthy dogs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)413-420
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican Journal of Veterinary Research
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2016


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

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