Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur crystalline free acid sterile suspension in green iguanas (Iguana iguana) after single intramuscular administration

Miranda J. Sadar, Michelle Hawkins, Ian T. Taylor, Barbara A Byrne, Lisa A Tell

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1 Scopus citations


The objective of this study was to establish the pharmacokinetic parameters of ceftiofur crystalline free acid (CCFA) for a single intramuscular injection in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). Six green iguanas received an injection of 5 mg/kg CCFA into the triceps muscle. Using high-performance liquid chromatography, concentrations of ceftiofur free acid equivalents in plasma samples collected at predetermined time points were evaluated up to 21 days following drug administration. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was applied to the data. The observed maximum plasma concentration (Cmax obs) was 2.765 ± 0.864 μg/mL, and the time of observed maximum concentration (Tmax obs) was 6.1 ± 9.2 hr. The area under the curve (0 to infinity) was 239.3 ± 121.1 μg·hr/mL. No significant adverse drug reactions were clinically observed, and no visible injection site reactions were noted. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of bacterial isolates from iguanas were used to establish a target plasma concentration of 2.0 μg/mL. Based on the results from this study, a potential dosing interval for ceftiofur crystalline free acid administered at 5 mg/kg intramuscularly for iguanas maintained at a temperature of 30°C would be 24 hr based on a target plasma concentration of 2 μg/mL; however, multidose studies still need to be performed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)86-91
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 2018



  • Ceftiofur crystalline free acid
  • Excede
  • Green iguana
  • Iguana iguana
  • Pharmacokinetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)

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