Despite their large size, antibodies (Abs) are suitable carriers to deliver systemic radiotherapy, often molecular image-based, for lymphoma and leukemia. Lym-1 Ab has proven to be an effective radioisotope carrier, even in small amounts, for targeting human leukocyte antigen DR (HLA-DR), a surface membrane protein overexpressed on B-cell lymphoma. Pairs of molecules (referred to as ligands), shown by computational and experimental methods to bind to each of 2 sites within the Lym-1 epitopic region, have been linked to generate small (<2 kDa) molecules (referred to as selective high-affinity ligands [SHALs]) to mimic the targeting properties of Lym-1 Ab. Methods: A lysine-polyethylene glycol (PEG) backbone was used to synthetically link 2 of the following ligands: deoxycholate, 5-leuenkephalin, triiodothyronine, thyronine, dabsyl-L-valine, and N-benzoyl-L-arginyl-4-amino-benzoic acid to generate a series of 13 bidentate SHALs with a biotin or 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N′, N″,N′″-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) chelate attached to the linker. These SHALs have been assessed for their selectivity in binding to HLA-DR10-expressing cells and for their pharmacokinetics and tissue biodistribution in mice. Biotinylated versions of these SHALs discriminated cell lines positive for HLA-DR10 expression with near-nanomolar affinity. The DOTA versions of 4 SHALs were labeled with 111In for pharmacokinetic studies in mice with HLA-DR10-expressing malignant Raji xenografts. Results: The bidentate, biotinylated, and DOTA-SHALs were synthesized in high-purity, multimilligram amounts. Mean radiochemical and product yields and purities were 90%, 75%, and 90% at mean specific activities of 3.9 MBq/μg (105 μCi/μg) for the 111In-labeled SHALs. As expected, rapid blood clearance and tumor targeting were observed. The pharmacokinetics of the SHALs was influenced by the component ligands. Biliary clearance, kidney localization, and serum receptor binding contributed to less favorable tumor targeting. Conclusion: A series of SHALs was readily synthesized in multimilligram amounts and showed the expected selective binding in vitro. Better selection of the SHAL components should provide second-generation SHALs with improved properties to fulfill the substantial potential of these novel molecular carriers for targeting.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiological and Ultrasound Technology