The personalized medicine revolution is occurring for cancer chemotherapy. Biomarkers are increasingly capable of distinguishing genotypic or phenotypic traits of individual tumors, and are being linked to the selection of treatment protocols. This review covers the molecular basis for biomarkers of response to targeted and cytotoxic lung and bladder cancer treatment with an emphasis on platinum-based chemotherapy. Platinum derivatives are a class of drugs commonly employed against solid tumors that kill cells by covalent attachment to DNA. Platinum-DNA adduct levels in patient tissues have been correlated to response and survival. The sensitivity and precision of adduct detection has increased to the point of enabling subtherapeutic dosing for diagnostics applications, termed diagnostic microdosing, prior to the initiation of full-dose therapy. The clinical status of this unique phenotypic marker for lung and bladder cancer applications is detailed along with discussion of future applications.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Clinical Biochemistry
- Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)
- Medical Laboratory Technology
- Analytical Chemistry