Personal exposure of dairy workers to dust, endotoxin, muramic acid, ergosterol, and ammonia on large-scale dairies in the high plains western United States

Margaret E. Davidson, Joshua Schaeffer, Maggie L. Clark, Sheryl Magzamen, Elizabeth J. Brooks, Thomas J. Keefe, Mary Bradford, Noa Roman-Muniz, John Mehaffy, Gregory Dooley, Jill A. Poole, Frank M. Mitloehner, Sue Reed, Marc B Schenker, Stephen J. Reynolds

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

7 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Dairy workers experience a high degree of bioaerosol exposure, composed of an array of biological and chemical constituents, which have been tied to adverse health effects. A better understanding of the variation in the magnitude and composition of exposures by task is needed to inform worker protection strategies. To characterize the levels and types of exposures, 115 dairy workers grouped into three task categories on nine farms in the high plains Western United States underwent personal monitoring for inhalable dust, endotoxin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFA), muramic acid, ergosterol, and ammonia through one work shift. Eighty-nine percent of dairy workers were exposed to endotoxin at concentrations exceeding the recommended exposure guidelines (adjusted for a long work shift). The proportion of workers with exposures exceeding recommended guidelines was lower for inhalable dust (12%), and ammonia (1%). Ergosterol exposures were only measurable on 28% of samples, primarily among medical workers and feed handlers. Milking parlor workers were exposed to significantly higher inhalable dust, endotoxin, 3-OHFA, ammonia, and muramic acid concentrations compared to workers performing other tasks. Development of large modern dairies has successfully made progress in reducing worker exposures and lung disease prevalence. However, exposure to endotoxin, dust, and ammonia continues to present a significant risk to worker health on North American dairies, especially for workers in milking parlors. This study was among the first to concurrently evaluate occupational exposure to assayable endotoxin (lipid A), 3-hydroxy fatty acids or 3-OHFA (a chemical measure of cell bound and noncell-bound endotoxins), muramic acid, ergosterol, and ammonia among workers on Western U.S. dairies. There remains a need for cost-effective, culturally acceptable intervention strategies integrated in OHS Risk Management and production systems to further optimize worker health and farm productivity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)182-193
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Volume15
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Fingerprint

Muramic Acids
Ergosterol
Dust
Ammonia
Endotoxins
Hydroxy Acids
Health
Fatty Acids
Guidelines
Lipid A
Risk Management
Occupational Exposure
Lung Diseases
Costs and Cost Analysis

Keywords

  • 3-hydroxy fatty acid
  • Bioaerosol
  • Dairy
  • Endotoxin
  • Ergosterol
  • Muramic acid
  • Organic dust
  • Task

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Personal exposure of dairy workers to dust, endotoxin, muramic acid, ergosterol, and ammonia on large-scale dairies in the high plains western United States. / Davidson, Margaret E.; Schaeffer, Joshua; Clark, Maggie L.; Magzamen, Sheryl; Brooks, Elizabeth J.; Keefe, Thomas J.; Bradford, Mary; Roman-Muniz, Noa; Mehaffy, John; Dooley, Gregory; Poole, Jill A.; Mitloehner, Frank M.; Reed, Sue; Schenker, Marc B; Reynolds, Stephen J.

In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, Vol. 15, No. 3, 01.01.2018, p. 182-193.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Davidson, ME, Schaeffer, J, Clark, ML, Magzamen, S, Brooks, EJ, Keefe, TJ, Bradford, M, Roman-Muniz, N, Mehaffy, J, Dooley, G, Poole, JA, Mitloehner, FM, Reed, S, Schenker, MB & Reynolds, SJ 2018, 'Personal exposure of dairy workers to dust, endotoxin, muramic acid, ergosterol, and ammonia on large-scale dairies in the high plains western United States', Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 182-193. https://doi.org/10.1080/15459624.2017.1403610
Davidson, Margaret E. ; Schaeffer, Joshua ; Clark, Maggie L. ; Magzamen, Sheryl ; Brooks, Elizabeth J. ; Keefe, Thomas J. ; Bradford, Mary ; Roman-Muniz, Noa ; Mehaffy, John ; Dooley, Gregory ; Poole, Jill A. ; Mitloehner, Frank M. ; Reed, Sue ; Schenker, Marc B ; Reynolds, Stephen J. / Personal exposure of dairy workers to dust, endotoxin, muramic acid, ergosterol, and ammonia on large-scale dairies in the high plains western United States. In: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene. 2018 ; Vol. 15, No. 3. pp. 182-193.
@article{9c59e39ee61a47b18512e2af8935f78b,
title = "Personal exposure of dairy workers to dust, endotoxin, muramic acid, ergosterol, and ammonia on large-scale dairies in the high plains western United States",
abstract = "Dairy workers experience a high degree of bioaerosol exposure, composed of an array of biological and chemical constituents, which have been tied to adverse health effects. A better understanding of the variation in the magnitude and composition of exposures by task is needed to inform worker protection strategies. To characterize the levels and types of exposures, 115 dairy workers grouped into three task categories on nine farms in the high plains Western United States underwent personal monitoring for inhalable dust, endotoxin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFA), muramic acid, ergosterol, and ammonia through one work shift. Eighty-nine percent of dairy workers were exposed to endotoxin at concentrations exceeding the recommended exposure guidelines (adjusted for a long work shift). The proportion of workers with exposures exceeding recommended guidelines was lower for inhalable dust (12{\%}), and ammonia (1{\%}). Ergosterol exposures were only measurable on 28{\%} of samples, primarily among medical workers and feed handlers. Milking parlor workers were exposed to significantly higher inhalable dust, endotoxin, 3-OHFA, ammonia, and muramic acid concentrations compared to workers performing other tasks. Development of large modern dairies has successfully made progress in reducing worker exposures and lung disease prevalence. However, exposure to endotoxin, dust, and ammonia continues to present a significant risk to worker health on North American dairies, especially for workers in milking parlors. This study was among the first to concurrently evaluate occupational exposure to assayable endotoxin (lipid A), 3-hydroxy fatty acids or 3-OHFA (a chemical measure of cell bound and noncell-bound endotoxins), muramic acid, ergosterol, and ammonia among workers on Western U.S. dairies. There remains a need for cost-effective, culturally acceptable intervention strategies integrated in OHS Risk Management and production systems to further optimize worker health and farm productivity.",
keywords = "3-hydroxy fatty acid, Bioaerosol, Dairy, Endotoxin, Ergosterol, Muramic acid, Organic dust, Task",
author = "Davidson, {Margaret E.} and Joshua Schaeffer and Clark, {Maggie L.} and Sheryl Magzamen and Brooks, {Elizabeth J.} and Keefe, {Thomas J.} and Mary Bradford and Noa Roman-Muniz and John Mehaffy and Gregory Dooley and Poole, {Jill A.} and Mitloehner, {Frank M.} and Sue Reed and Schenker, {Marc B} and Reynolds, {Stephen J.}",
year = "2018",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1080/15459624.2017.1403610",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "15",
pages = "182--193",
journal = "Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene",
issn = "1545-9624",
publisher = "Taylor and Francis Ltd.",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Personal exposure of dairy workers to dust, endotoxin, muramic acid, ergosterol, and ammonia on large-scale dairies in the high plains western United States

AU - Davidson, Margaret E.

AU - Schaeffer, Joshua

AU - Clark, Maggie L.

AU - Magzamen, Sheryl

AU - Brooks, Elizabeth J.

AU - Keefe, Thomas J.

AU - Bradford, Mary

AU - Roman-Muniz, Noa

AU - Mehaffy, John

AU - Dooley, Gregory

AU - Poole, Jill A.

AU - Mitloehner, Frank M.

AU - Reed, Sue

AU - Schenker, Marc B

AU - Reynolds, Stephen J.

PY - 2018/1/1

Y1 - 2018/1/1

N2 - Dairy workers experience a high degree of bioaerosol exposure, composed of an array of biological and chemical constituents, which have been tied to adverse health effects. A better understanding of the variation in the magnitude and composition of exposures by task is needed to inform worker protection strategies. To characterize the levels and types of exposures, 115 dairy workers grouped into three task categories on nine farms in the high plains Western United States underwent personal monitoring for inhalable dust, endotoxin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFA), muramic acid, ergosterol, and ammonia through one work shift. Eighty-nine percent of dairy workers were exposed to endotoxin at concentrations exceeding the recommended exposure guidelines (adjusted for a long work shift). The proportion of workers with exposures exceeding recommended guidelines was lower for inhalable dust (12%), and ammonia (1%). Ergosterol exposures were only measurable on 28% of samples, primarily among medical workers and feed handlers. Milking parlor workers were exposed to significantly higher inhalable dust, endotoxin, 3-OHFA, ammonia, and muramic acid concentrations compared to workers performing other tasks. Development of large modern dairies has successfully made progress in reducing worker exposures and lung disease prevalence. However, exposure to endotoxin, dust, and ammonia continues to present a significant risk to worker health on North American dairies, especially for workers in milking parlors. This study was among the first to concurrently evaluate occupational exposure to assayable endotoxin (lipid A), 3-hydroxy fatty acids or 3-OHFA (a chemical measure of cell bound and noncell-bound endotoxins), muramic acid, ergosterol, and ammonia among workers on Western U.S. dairies. There remains a need for cost-effective, culturally acceptable intervention strategies integrated in OHS Risk Management and production systems to further optimize worker health and farm productivity.

AB - Dairy workers experience a high degree of bioaerosol exposure, composed of an array of biological and chemical constituents, which have been tied to adverse health effects. A better understanding of the variation in the magnitude and composition of exposures by task is needed to inform worker protection strategies. To characterize the levels and types of exposures, 115 dairy workers grouped into three task categories on nine farms in the high plains Western United States underwent personal monitoring for inhalable dust, endotoxin, 3-hydroxy fatty acids (3-OHFA), muramic acid, ergosterol, and ammonia through one work shift. Eighty-nine percent of dairy workers were exposed to endotoxin at concentrations exceeding the recommended exposure guidelines (adjusted for a long work shift). The proportion of workers with exposures exceeding recommended guidelines was lower for inhalable dust (12%), and ammonia (1%). Ergosterol exposures were only measurable on 28% of samples, primarily among medical workers and feed handlers. Milking parlor workers were exposed to significantly higher inhalable dust, endotoxin, 3-OHFA, ammonia, and muramic acid concentrations compared to workers performing other tasks. Development of large modern dairies has successfully made progress in reducing worker exposures and lung disease prevalence. However, exposure to endotoxin, dust, and ammonia continues to present a significant risk to worker health on North American dairies, especially for workers in milking parlors. This study was among the first to concurrently evaluate occupational exposure to assayable endotoxin (lipid A), 3-hydroxy fatty acids or 3-OHFA (a chemical measure of cell bound and noncell-bound endotoxins), muramic acid, ergosterol, and ammonia among workers on Western U.S. dairies. There remains a need for cost-effective, culturally acceptable intervention strategies integrated in OHS Risk Management and production systems to further optimize worker health and farm productivity.

KW - 3-hydroxy fatty acid

KW - Bioaerosol

KW - Dairy

KW - Endotoxin

KW - Ergosterol

KW - Muramic acid

KW - Organic dust

KW - Task

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85052719406&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85052719406&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1080/15459624.2017.1403610

DO - 10.1080/15459624.2017.1403610

M3 - Article

C2 - 29157144

AN - SCOPUS:85052719406

VL - 15

SP - 182

EP - 193

JO - Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

JF - Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene

SN - 1545-9624

IS - 3

ER -