Persistent behavior deficits, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress in a rat model of acute organophosphate intoxication

Michelle Guignet, Kiran Dhakal, Brenna M. Flannery, Brad A. Hobson, Dorota Zolkowska, Ashish Dhir, Donald A. Bruun, Shuyang Li, Abdul Wahab, Danielle J Harvey, Jill L Silverman, Michael A Rogawski, Pamela J Lein

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Current medical countermeasures for organophosphate (OP)-induced status epilepticus (SE) are not effective in preventing long-term morbidity and there is an urgent need for improved therapies. Rat models of acute intoxication with the OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), are increasingly being used to evaluate therapeutic candidates for efficacy in mitigating the long-term neurologic effects associated with OP-induced SE. Many of these therapeutic candidates target neuroinflammation and oxidative stress because of their implication in the pathogenesis of persistent neurologic deficits associated with OP-induced SE. Critical to these efforts is the rigorous characterization of the rat DFP model with respect to outcomes associated with acute OP intoxication in humans, which include long-term electroencephalographic, neurobehavioral, and neuropathologic effects, and their temporal relationship to neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. To address these needs, we examined a range of outcomes at later times post-exposure than have previously been reported for this model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given pyridostigmine bromide (0.1 mg/kg, im) 30 min prior to administration of DFP (4 mg/kg, sc), which was immediately followed by atropine sulfate (2 mg/kg, im) and pralidoxime (25 mg/kg, im). This exposure paradigm triggered robust electroencephalographic and behavioral seizures that rapidly progressed to SE lasting several hours in 90% of exposed animals. Animals that survived DFP-induced SE (~70%) exhibited spontaneous recurrent seizures and hyperreactive responses to tactile stimuli over the first 2 months post-exposure. Performance in the elevated plus maze, open field, and Pavlovian fear conditioning tests indicated that acute DFP intoxication reduced anxiety-like behavior and impaired learning and memory at 1 and 2 months post-exposure in the absence of effects on general locomotor behavior. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed significantly increased expression of biomarkers of reactive astrogliosis, microglial activation and oxidative stress in multiple brain regions at 1 and 2 months post-DFP, although there was significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity across these endpoints. Collectively, these data largely support the relevance of the rat model of acute DFP intoxication as a model for acute OP intoxication in the human, and support the hypothesis that neuroinflammation and/or oxidative stress represent potential therapeutic targets for mitigating the long-term neurologic sequelae of acute OP intoxication.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalNeurobiology of Disease
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

Fingerprint

Isoflurophate
Organophosphates
Status Epilepticus
Oxidative Stress
Nervous System
Seizures
Pyridostigmine Bromide
Touch
Therapeutics
Neurologic Manifestations
Atropine
Fear
Sprague Dawley Rats
Anxiety
Biomarkers
Learning
Morbidity
Brain

Keywords

  • Behavior
  • Cognition
  • Diisopropylfluorophosphate
  • Electroencephalography
  • Microgliosis
  • Persistent effects
  • Preclinical model
  • Reactive astrogliosis
  • Spontaneous recurrent seizures
  • Sublethal toxicity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neurology

Cite this

Persistent behavior deficits, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress in a rat model of acute organophosphate intoxication. / Guignet, Michelle; Dhakal, Kiran; Flannery, Brenna M.; Hobson, Brad A.; Zolkowska, Dorota; Dhir, Ashish; Bruun, Donald A.; Li, Shuyang; Wahab, Abdul; Harvey, Danielle J; Silverman, Jill L; Rogawski, Michael A; Lein, Pamela J.

In: Neurobiology of Disease, 01.01.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Guignet, Michelle ; Dhakal, Kiran ; Flannery, Brenna M. ; Hobson, Brad A. ; Zolkowska, Dorota ; Dhir, Ashish ; Bruun, Donald A. ; Li, Shuyang ; Wahab, Abdul ; Harvey, Danielle J ; Silverman, Jill L ; Rogawski, Michael A ; Lein, Pamela J. / Persistent behavior deficits, neuroinflammation, and oxidative stress in a rat model of acute organophosphate intoxication. In: Neurobiology of Disease. 2019.
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abstract = "Current medical countermeasures for organophosphate (OP)-induced status epilepticus (SE) are not effective in preventing long-term morbidity and there is an urgent need for improved therapies. Rat models of acute intoxication with the OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), are increasingly being used to evaluate therapeutic candidates for efficacy in mitigating the long-term neurologic effects associated with OP-induced SE. Many of these therapeutic candidates target neuroinflammation and oxidative stress because of their implication in the pathogenesis of persistent neurologic deficits associated with OP-induced SE. Critical to these efforts is the rigorous characterization of the rat DFP model with respect to outcomes associated with acute OP intoxication in humans, which include long-term electroencephalographic, neurobehavioral, and neuropathologic effects, and their temporal relationship to neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. To address these needs, we examined a range of outcomes at later times post-exposure than have previously been reported for this model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given pyridostigmine bromide (0.1 mg/kg, im) 30 min prior to administration of DFP (4 mg/kg, sc), which was immediately followed by atropine sulfate (2 mg/kg, im) and pralidoxime (25 mg/kg, im). This exposure paradigm triggered robust electroencephalographic and behavioral seizures that rapidly progressed to SE lasting several hours in 90{\%} of exposed animals. Animals that survived DFP-induced SE (~70{\%}) exhibited spontaneous recurrent seizures and hyperreactive responses to tactile stimuli over the first 2 months post-exposure. Performance in the elevated plus maze, open field, and Pavlovian fear conditioning tests indicated that acute DFP intoxication reduced anxiety-like behavior and impaired learning and memory at 1 and 2 months post-exposure in the absence of effects on general locomotor behavior. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed significantly increased expression of biomarkers of reactive astrogliosis, microglial activation and oxidative stress in multiple brain regions at 1 and 2 months post-DFP, although there was significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity across these endpoints. Collectively, these data largely support the relevance of the rat model of acute DFP intoxication as a model for acute OP intoxication in the human, and support the hypothesis that neuroinflammation and/or oxidative stress represent potential therapeutic targets for mitigating the long-term neurologic sequelae of acute OP intoxication.",
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AU - Guignet, Michelle

AU - Dhakal, Kiran

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AU - Hobson, Brad A.

AU - Zolkowska, Dorota

AU - Dhir, Ashish

AU - Bruun, Donald A.

AU - Li, Shuyang

AU - Wahab, Abdul

AU - Harvey, Danielle J

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N2 - Current medical countermeasures for organophosphate (OP)-induced status epilepticus (SE) are not effective in preventing long-term morbidity and there is an urgent need for improved therapies. Rat models of acute intoxication with the OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), are increasingly being used to evaluate therapeutic candidates for efficacy in mitigating the long-term neurologic effects associated with OP-induced SE. Many of these therapeutic candidates target neuroinflammation and oxidative stress because of their implication in the pathogenesis of persistent neurologic deficits associated with OP-induced SE. Critical to these efforts is the rigorous characterization of the rat DFP model with respect to outcomes associated with acute OP intoxication in humans, which include long-term electroencephalographic, neurobehavioral, and neuropathologic effects, and their temporal relationship to neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. To address these needs, we examined a range of outcomes at later times post-exposure than have previously been reported for this model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given pyridostigmine bromide (0.1 mg/kg, im) 30 min prior to administration of DFP (4 mg/kg, sc), which was immediately followed by atropine sulfate (2 mg/kg, im) and pralidoxime (25 mg/kg, im). This exposure paradigm triggered robust electroencephalographic and behavioral seizures that rapidly progressed to SE lasting several hours in 90% of exposed animals. Animals that survived DFP-induced SE (~70%) exhibited spontaneous recurrent seizures and hyperreactive responses to tactile stimuli over the first 2 months post-exposure. Performance in the elevated plus maze, open field, and Pavlovian fear conditioning tests indicated that acute DFP intoxication reduced anxiety-like behavior and impaired learning and memory at 1 and 2 months post-exposure in the absence of effects on general locomotor behavior. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed significantly increased expression of biomarkers of reactive astrogliosis, microglial activation and oxidative stress in multiple brain regions at 1 and 2 months post-DFP, although there was significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity across these endpoints. Collectively, these data largely support the relevance of the rat model of acute DFP intoxication as a model for acute OP intoxication in the human, and support the hypothesis that neuroinflammation and/or oxidative stress represent potential therapeutic targets for mitigating the long-term neurologic sequelae of acute OP intoxication.

AB - Current medical countermeasures for organophosphate (OP)-induced status epilepticus (SE) are not effective in preventing long-term morbidity and there is an urgent need for improved therapies. Rat models of acute intoxication with the OP, diisopropylfluorophosphate (DFP), are increasingly being used to evaluate therapeutic candidates for efficacy in mitigating the long-term neurologic effects associated with OP-induced SE. Many of these therapeutic candidates target neuroinflammation and oxidative stress because of their implication in the pathogenesis of persistent neurologic deficits associated with OP-induced SE. Critical to these efforts is the rigorous characterization of the rat DFP model with respect to outcomes associated with acute OP intoxication in humans, which include long-term electroencephalographic, neurobehavioral, and neuropathologic effects, and their temporal relationship to neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. To address these needs, we examined a range of outcomes at later times post-exposure than have previously been reported for this model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given pyridostigmine bromide (0.1 mg/kg, im) 30 min prior to administration of DFP (4 mg/kg, sc), which was immediately followed by atropine sulfate (2 mg/kg, im) and pralidoxime (25 mg/kg, im). This exposure paradigm triggered robust electroencephalographic and behavioral seizures that rapidly progressed to SE lasting several hours in 90% of exposed animals. Animals that survived DFP-induced SE (~70%) exhibited spontaneous recurrent seizures and hyperreactive responses to tactile stimuli over the first 2 months post-exposure. Performance in the elevated plus maze, open field, and Pavlovian fear conditioning tests indicated that acute DFP intoxication reduced anxiety-like behavior and impaired learning and memory at 1 and 2 months post-exposure in the absence of effects on general locomotor behavior. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed significantly increased expression of biomarkers of reactive astrogliosis, microglial activation and oxidative stress in multiple brain regions at 1 and 2 months post-DFP, although there was significant spatiotemporal heterogeneity across these endpoints. Collectively, these data largely support the relevance of the rat model of acute DFP intoxication as a model for acute OP intoxication in the human, and support the hypothesis that neuroinflammation and/or oxidative stress represent potential therapeutic targets for mitigating the long-term neurologic sequelae of acute OP intoxication.

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KW - Persistent effects

KW - Preclinical model

KW - Reactive astrogliosis

KW - Spontaneous recurrent seizures

KW - Sublethal toxicity

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