Persistence of mosquito-borne viruses in Kern County, California, 1983-1988

William Reisen, J. L. Hardy, W. C. Reeves, S. B. Presser, M. M. Milby, R. P. Meyer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The persistence of arboviruses was studied from 1983 to 1988 in mixed agriculture, marsh, riparian, and foothill habitats in Kern County, CA. Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus was isolated frequently during 1983 from Culex tarsalis and Aedes melanimon and was detected by the seroconversion of sentinel chickens. WEE virus then disappeared, even though vector competence studies during 1984-1986 showed that Cx. tarsalis was able to transmit WEE virus. St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus was detected sporadically in 3 of the 6 years of the study by isolation from Cx. tarsalis and/or by sentinel chicken seroconversion. When mosquito pools were screened for virus in suckling mice, Turlock (TUR) and Hart Park (HP) viruses were isolated from Cx. tarsalis during each summer. Vertical transmission of HP was indicated by the isolation of virus from a pool of male Cx. tarsalis. California encephalitis (CE) virus was isolated repeatedly from host-seeking Ae. melanimon females, males, and adults reared from field-collected immatures, verifying vertical transmission in nature. Horizontal transmission of CE virus among both jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) and desert cottontails (Sylvilagus auduboni) appeared to amplify Ae. melanimon infection rates during the summer of 1985, but elevated herd immunity depressed infection rates during 1986. Thus, CE, HP, and TUR viruses persisted in Kern County, while WEE virus appeared to become extinct and required reintroduction. The sporadic occurrence of SLE virus activity remains unexplained, but its persistence may require both vertical transmission and reintroduction.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)419-437
Number of pages19
JournalAmerican Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Volume43
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 1990
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Western Equine Encephalitis Viruses
Culicidae
St. Louis Encephalitis Viruses
California Encephalitis Viruses
Viruses
Hares
California Encephalitis
Chickens
Herd Immunity
Arboviruses
Culex
Wetlands
Aedes
Infection
Agriculture
Mental Competency
Ecosystem

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Virology

Cite this

Persistence of mosquito-borne viruses in Kern County, California, 1983-1988. / Reisen, William; Hardy, J. L.; Reeves, W. C.; Presser, S. B.; Milby, M. M.; Meyer, R. P.

In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Vol. 43, No. 4, 01.01.1990, p. 419-437.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Reisen, William ; Hardy, J. L. ; Reeves, W. C. ; Presser, S. B. ; Milby, M. M. ; Meyer, R. P. / Persistence of mosquito-borne viruses in Kern County, California, 1983-1988. In: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 1990 ; Vol. 43, No. 4. pp. 419-437.
@article{8e902b88b7c34b4cab8d28084f8895d5,
title = "Persistence of mosquito-borne viruses in Kern County, California, 1983-1988",
abstract = "The persistence of arboviruses was studied from 1983 to 1988 in mixed agriculture, marsh, riparian, and foothill habitats in Kern County, CA. Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus was isolated frequently during 1983 from Culex tarsalis and Aedes melanimon and was detected by the seroconversion of sentinel chickens. WEE virus then disappeared, even though vector competence studies during 1984-1986 showed that Cx. tarsalis was able to transmit WEE virus. St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus was detected sporadically in 3 of the 6 years of the study by isolation from Cx. tarsalis and/or by sentinel chicken seroconversion. When mosquito pools were screened for virus in suckling mice, Turlock (TUR) and Hart Park (HP) viruses were isolated from Cx. tarsalis during each summer. Vertical transmission of HP was indicated by the isolation of virus from a pool of male Cx. tarsalis. California encephalitis (CE) virus was isolated repeatedly from host-seeking Ae. melanimon females, males, and adults reared from field-collected immatures, verifying vertical transmission in nature. Horizontal transmission of CE virus among both jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) and desert cottontails (Sylvilagus auduboni) appeared to amplify Ae. melanimon infection rates during the summer of 1985, but elevated herd immunity depressed infection rates during 1986. Thus, CE, HP, and TUR viruses persisted in Kern County, while WEE virus appeared to become extinct and required reintroduction. The sporadic occurrence of SLE virus activity remains unexplained, but its persistence may require both vertical transmission and reintroduction.",
author = "William Reisen and Hardy, {J. L.} and Reeves, {W. C.} and Presser, {S. B.} and Milby, {M. M.} and Meyer, {R. P.}",
year = "1990",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.4269/ajtmh.1990.43.419",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "43",
pages = "419--437",
journal = "American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene",
issn = "0002-9637",
publisher = "American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Persistence of mosquito-borne viruses in Kern County, California, 1983-1988

AU - Reisen, William

AU - Hardy, J. L.

AU - Reeves, W. C.

AU - Presser, S. B.

AU - Milby, M. M.

AU - Meyer, R. P.

PY - 1990/1/1

Y1 - 1990/1/1

N2 - The persistence of arboviruses was studied from 1983 to 1988 in mixed agriculture, marsh, riparian, and foothill habitats in Kern County, CA. Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus was isolated frequently during 1983 from Culex tarsalis and Aedes melanimon and was detected by the seroconversion of sentinel chickens. WEE virus then disappeared, even though vector competence studies during 1984-1986 showed that Cx. tarsalis was able to transmit WEE virus. St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus was detected sporadically in 3 of the 6 years of the study by isolation from Cx. tarsalis and/or by sentinel chicken seroconversion. When mosquito pools were screened for virus in suckling mice, Turlock (TUR) and Hart Park (HP) viruses were isolated from Cx. tarsalis during each summer. Vertical transmission of HP was indicated by the isolation of virus from a pool of male Cx. tarsalis. California encephalitis (CE) virus was isolated repeatedly from host-seeking Ae. melanimon females, males, and adults reared from field-collected immatures, verifying vertical transmission in nature. Horizontal transmission of CE virus among both jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) and desert cottontails (Sylvilagus auduboni) appeared to amplify Ae. melanimon infection rates during the summer of 1985, but elevated herd immunity depressed infection rates during 1986. Thus, CE, HP, and TUR viruses persisted in Kern County, while WEE virus appeared to become extinct and required reintroduction. The sporadic occurrence of SLE virus activity remains unexplained, but its persistence may require both vertical transmission and reintroduction.

AB - The persistence of arboviruses was studied from 1983 to 1988 in mixed agriculture, marsh, riparian, and foothill habitats in Kern County, CA. Western equine encephalomyelitis (WEE) virus was isolated frequently during 1983 from Culex tarsalis and Aedes melanimon and was detected by the seroconversion of sentinel chickens. WEE virus then disappeared, even though vector competence studies during 1984-1986 showed that Cx. tarsalis was able to transmit WEE virus. St. Louis encephalitis (SLE) virus was detected sporadically in 3 of the 6 years of the study by isolation from Cx. tarsalis and/or by sentinel chicken seroconversion. When mosquito pools were screened for virus in suckling mice, Turlock (TUR) and Hart Park (HP) viruses were isolated from Cx. tarsalis during each summer. Vertical transmission of HP was indicated by the isolation of virus from a pool of male Cx. tarsalis. California encephalitis (CE) virus was isolated repeatedly from host-seeking Ae. melanimon females, males, and adults reared from field-collected immatures, verifying vertical transmission in nature. Horizontal transmission of CE virus among both jackrabbits (Lepus californicus) and desert cottontails (Sylvilagus auduboni) appeared to amplify Ae. melanimon infection rates during the summer of 1985, but elevated herd immunity depressed infection rates during 1986. Thus, CE, HP, and TUR viruses persisted in Kern County, while WEE virus appeared to become extinct and required reintroduction. The sporadic occurrence of SLE virus activity remains unexplained, but its persistence may require both vertical transmission and reintroduction.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0025123907&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0025123907&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.4269/ajtmh.1990.43.419

DO - 10.4269/ajtmh.1990.43.419

M3 - Article

C2 - 2240370

AN - SCOPUS:0025123907

VL - 43

SP - 419

EP - 437

JO - American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

JF - American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

SN - 0002-9637

IS - 4

ER -