Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a vaccine-preventable, mosquito-borne disease. Substantial progress with JE control in Asia has been made during the past decade, with most endemic countries now having JE vaccination programs, commonly using live attenuated SA14-14-2 JE vaccine (trade name CD-JEV). If a child develops encephalitis during the weeks to months following CD-JEV vaccination and anti-JE virus IgM (JE IgM) antibody is detected in serum, the question arises if this is JE virus infection indicating vaccine failure, or persistent JE IgM antibody postvaccination. To better understand JE IgM seropositivity following vaccination, sera from 268 children from a previous CD-JEV study were tested by two different JE IgM assays to determine JE IgM antibody frequency on days 28, 180, and 365 postvaccination. With the CDC JE IgM antibody capture ELISA (MAC-ELISA), 110 children (41%) had JE IgM positive or equivocal results on their day 28 sample, and eight (3%) and two (1%) had positive or equivocal results on day 180 and day 365 samples, respectively. With the InBios JE Detect™ MAC-ELISA (Seattle, WA), 118 (44%) children had positive or equivocal results on day 28 sample, and three (1%) and one (0.4%) had positive or equivocal results on day 180 and day 365 samples, respectively. Our results indicate that more than 40% children vaccinated with CD-JEV can have JE IgM antibodies in their serum at 1 month postvaccination but JE IgM antibody is rare by 6 months. These data will help healthcare workers assess the likelihood that JE IgM antibodies in the serum of a child with encephalitis after vaccination are vaccine related.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases