Objective: To report perioperative characteristics, complications, histopathologic diagnosis and outcome in cats undergoing surgical treatment for primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). Study design: Multi-institutional, retrospective case series. Animals: Thirty-two client-owned cats. Methods: Medical records of cats treated with surgical removal of 1 or more parathyroid gland(s) with confirmed histopathologic evaluation were reviewed. Cats were divided into preoperative ionized calcium (iCa) groups corresponding to the 33rd, 67th, and 100th percentiles of the preoperative iCa results of the study population. Follow-up consisted of phone conversation with owners or primary veterinarian. Results: Ionized calcium was above reference range in all cats (median 1.8 mmol/L [interquartile range, 1.5–1.9]). Abnormal tissue was excised after cervical exploration in all cats. The most common histopathologic diagnoses were parathyroid adenoma in 20 of 32 (62.5%) cats and parathyroid carcinoma in 7 of 32 (21.9%) cats. At discharge, 6 of 32 (18.8%) cats had hypercalcemia, 5 of 32 (15.6%) had hypocalcemia, and 21 of 32 (65.6%) were normocalcemic. Preoperative iCa did not correlate with postoperative iCa. The median follow-up time was 332 days (range, 7–3156). Overall median survival time was 1109 days (95% CI, 856–1332). Survival time was not associated with preoperative iCa group, hypocalcemia at discharge, hypercalcemia at discharge, or diagnosis of carcinoma. Conclusion: In this cohort of cats, parathyroid adenoma was the most common cause of PHPT, and surgical treatment resulted in very good median survival time. Preoperative iCa was not predictive of postoperative hypocalcemia. Clinical significance: Surgical parathyroidectomy for treatment of PHPT in cats provides a favorable prognosis.
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