Performance of bare and sol-gel coated DKDP crystal surfaces exposed to multiple 351-nm laser pulses in vacuum and air

P. Whitman, M. Norton, M. Nostrand, W. Molander, A. Nelson, M. Engelhard, D. Gaspar, D. Baer, W. Siekhaus, J. Auerbach, S. Demos, M. Staggs, A. Burnham

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Scopus citations


We have investigated the surface degradation of bare and sol-gel coated deuterated potassium dihydrogen phosphate (DKDP) crystals when exposed to 351-nm laser pulses in atmospheric air and nitrogen and at pressures ranging from atmospheric down to 10 -5 Torr vacuum. Optical microscopy, surface topography, surface chemical analyses, 351-nm pumped photoemission maps, and photometry results have been used to characterize these samples. We report the occurrence of two potentially linked surface degradation phenomena: the development of increased photoemission and the development of unacceptable surface roughening in the region exposed to the beam in vacuum. We note no degradation for surfaces exposed in air or nitrogen at pressures exceeding 1 torr. Diamond-turned DKDP surfaces show a ubiquitous, low-intensity photoemission signature before exposure to any laser fluence. The observed reduction of this emission signal as a function of operating pressure and accumulated laser energy when crystals are exposed to 351-nm laser pulses in air can be correlated with the removal of surface carbon.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
EditorsG.J. Exarhos, A.H. Guenter, K.L. Lewis, M.J. Soileau, C.J. Stolz
Number of pages14
StatePublished - 2002
Externally publishedYes
EventLaser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001 - Boulder, CO, United States
Duration: Oct 1 2001Oct 2 2001


OtherLaser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2001
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CityBoulder, CO


  • Fluorescence
  • KDP
  • Laser damage
  • Photoemission
  • Photoluminescence
  • Potassium dihydrogen phosphate
  • Surface roughening
  • Vacuum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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