Performance evaluation of dual-ended readout PET detectors based on BGO arrays with different reflector arrangements

Junwei Du, Qian Wang, Chih Chieh Liu, Jinyi Qi, Simon R. Cherry

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: Dual-ended readout depth-encoding detectors based on bismuth germanate (BGO) scintillation crystal arrays are good candidates for high-sensitivity small animal positron emission tomography used for very-low-dose imaging. In this paper, the performance of three dual-ended readout detectors based on 15 15 BGO arrays with three different reflector arrangements and 8 8 silicon photomultiplier arrays were evaluated and compared. Approach: The three BGO arrays, denoted wo-ILG (without internal light guide), wp-ILG (with partial internal light guide), and wf-ILG (with full internal light guide), share a pitch size of 1.6 mm and thickness of 20 mm. Toray E60 with a thickness of 50 μm was used as inter-crystal reflector. All reflector lengths in the wo-ILG and wf-ILG BGO arrays were 20 and 18 mm, respectively; the reflectors in the wp-ILG BGO array were 18 mm at the central region of the array and 20 mm at the edge. By using 18 mm reflectors, part of the crystals in the wp-ILG and wf-ILG BGO arrays worked as internal light guides. Main results: The results showed that the detector based on the wo-ILG BGO array provided the best flood histogram. The energy, timing and DOI resolutions of the three detectors were similar. The energy resolutions full width at half maximum (FWHM value) based on the wo-ILG, wp-ILG and wf-ILG BGO arrays were 27.2 3.9%, 28.7 4.6%, and 29.5 4.7%, respectively. The timing resolutions (FWHM value) were 4.7 0.5 ns, 4.9 0.5 ns, and 5.0 0.6 ns, respectively. The DOI resolution (FWHM value) were 3.0 0.2 mm, 2.9 0.2 mm, and 3.0 0.2 mm, respectively. Over all, the wo-ILG detector provided the best performance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number215001
JournalPhysics in medicine and biology
Issue number21
StatePublished - Nov 7 2021


  • BGO
  • DOI
  • dual-ended
  • PET

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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