Pelvic inflammatory disease: risk factors and microbial etiologies.

M. O. Jossens, Richard L Sweet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


OBJECTIVE: To review the risk factors and microbial etiologies of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). DATA SOURCES: Include 77 current and historical references on PID, PID risk factors, and sexually transmitted diseases. STUDY SELECTION: 34 studies that address specific research questions. DATA EXTRACTION: Data were used from studies whose methodologies are discussed. DATA SYNTHESIS: This review identifies research problems regarding the definition, diagnosis, and identification of microbial profiles and risk factors of PID. CONCLUSIONS: More reliable diagnostic criteria for the varied clinical presentations of this polymicrobial infection are needed. PID is a disease with multiple, interrelated risks. Education is an important nursing intervention.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)169-179
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of obstetric, gynecologic, and neonatal nursing : JOGNN / NAACOG
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1993
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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