Burn injury is a leading cause of unintentional death and injury in children, with the majority being minor (less than 10%). However, a significant number of children sustain burns greater than 15% total body surface area (TBSA), leading to the initiation of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. These patients require IV fluid resuscitation to prevent burn shock and death. Prompt resuscitation is critical in pediatric patients due to their small circulating blood volumes. Delays in resuscitation can result in increased complications and increased mortality. The basic principles of resuscitation are the same in adults and children, with several key differences. The unique physiologic needs of children must be adequately addressed during resuscitation to optimize outcomes. In this review, we will discuss the history of fluid resuscitation, current resuscitation practices, and future directions of resuscitation for the pediatric burn population.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
- Emergency Medicine
- Biomedical Engineering
- Immunology and Allergy