PBC Screen: An IgG/IgA dual isotype ELISA detecting multiple mitochondrial and nuclear autoantibodies specific for primary biliary cirrhosis

Haiying Liu, Gary L. Norman, Zakera Shums, Howard J. Worman, Edward L. Krawitt, Nicola Bizzaro, Diego Vergani, Dimitrios P. Bogdanos, George N. Dalekos, Piotr Milkiewicz, Albert J. Czaja, E. Jenny Heathcote, Gideon M. Hirschfield, Eng M. Tan, Kiyomitsu Miyachi, Monica Bignotto, Pier Maria Battezzati, Ana Lleo, Patrick S Leung, Mauro PoddaM. Eric Gershwin, Pietro Invernizzi

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Abstract

A dual isotype (IgG, IgA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed to provide enhanced detection of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)-specific autoantibodies against both major mitochondrial and nuclear antigens has been developed and recently become commercially available. The assay (PBC Screen) simultaneously detects IgG and IgA autoantibodies to the immunodominant portions of the 3 major mitochondrial (MIT3) and nuclear (gp210, and sp100) antigens. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the PBC Screen to the combined performance obtained with individual IgG ELISAs to MIT3, gp210, and sp100 on a large group of selected patients from multiple centers. A total of 1175 patients with PBC and 1232 subjects without PBC were evaluated. Non-PBC groups included healthy controls (624) as well as individuals with autoimmune hepatitis (281), primary sclerosing cholangitis (77), viral hepatitis (91 hepatitis B and 98 hepatitis C), other liver diseases (31), and other infectious or autoimmune diseases (30). The PBC Screen at the receiver operator characteristic optimized cutoff of 27.8 units, had an overall sensitivity of 83.8%, specificity of 94.7% and area under curve of 0.9212. This was similar to the specificity of 96.1% obtained by the combined results of individual MIT3, sp100, and gp210 IgG ELISAs (kappa index at 0.898). Of the 253 PBC patients without AMA detectable by immunofluorescence, 113 (44.7%) were interpreted as positive for PBC-specific autoantibodies. In conclusion, the PBC Screen is an appropriate first-line test for the diagnosis of PBC, including for patients negative for markers assessed using conventional methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)436-442
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Autoimmunity
Volume35
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 2010

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Biliary Liver Cirrhosis
Autoantibodies
Immunoglobulin A
Immunoglobulin G
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
Autoimmune Hepatitis
Sclerosing Cholangitis
Nuclear Antigens
Hepatitis C
Hepatitis B
Hepatitis
Autoimmune Diseases
Area Under Curve
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Communicable Diseases
Liver Diseases
Antigens
Sensitivity and Specificity

Keywords

  • Antimitochondrial antibody
  • Autoantibodies
  • Biomarkers
  • Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
  • Gp210
  • Sp100

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy

Cite this

PBC Screen : An IgG/IgA dual isotype ELISA detecting multiple mitochondrial and nuclear autoantibodies specific for primary biliary cirrhosis. / Liu, Haiying; Norman, Gary L.; Shums, Zakera; Worman, Howard J.; Krawitt, Edward L.; Bizzaro, Nicola; Vergani, Diego; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.; Dalekos, George N.; Milkiewicz, Piotr; Czaja, Albert J.; Heathcote, E. Jenny; Hirschfield, Gideon M.; Tan, Eng M.; Miyachi, Kiyomitsu; Bignotto, Monica; Battezzati, Pier Maria; Lleo, Ana; Leung, Patrick S; Podda, Mauro; Gershwin, M. Eric; Invernizzi, Pietro.

In: Journal of Autoimmunity, Vol. 35, No. 4, 12.2010, p. 436-442.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Liu, H, Norman, GL, Shums, Z, Worman, HJ, Krawitt, EL, Bizzaro, N, Vergani, D, Bogdanos, DP, Dalekos, GN, Milkiewicz, P, Czaja, AJ, Heathcote, EJ, Hirschfield, GM, Tan, EM, Miyachi, K, Bignotto, M, Battezzati, PM, Lleo, A, Leung, PS, Podda, M, Gershwin, ME & Invernizzi, P 2010, 'PBC Screen: An IgG/IgA dual isotype ELISA detecting multiple mitochondrial and nuclear autoantibodies specific for primary biliary cirrhosis', Journal of Autoimmunity, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 436-442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaut.2010.09.005
Liu, Haiying ; Norman, Gary L. ; Shums, Zakera ; Worman, Howard J. ; Krawitt, Edward L. ; Bizzaro, Nicola ; Vergani, Diego ; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P. ; Dalekos, George N. ; Milkiewicz, Piotr ; Czaja, Albert J. ; Heathcote, E. Jenny ; Hirschfield, Gideon M. ; Tan, Eng M. ; Miyachi, Kiyomitsu ; Bignotto, Monica ; Battezzati, Pier Maria ; Lleo, Ana ; Leung, Patrick S ; Podda, Mauro ; Gershwin, M. Eric ; Invernizzi, Pietro. / PBC Screen : An IgG/IgA dual isotype ELISA detecting multiple mitochondrial and nuclear autoantibodies specific for primary biliary cirrhosis. In: Journal of Autoimmunity. 2010 ; Vol. 35, No. 4. pp. 436-442.
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AU - Shums, Zakera

AU - Worman, Howard J.

AU - Krawitt, Edward L.

AU - Bizzaro, Nicola

AU - Vergani, Diego

AU - Bogdanos, Dimitrios P.

AU - Dalekos, George N.

AU - Milkiewicz, Piotr

AU - Czaja, Albert J.

AU - Heathcote, E. Jenny

AU - Hirschfield, Gideon M.

AU - Tan, Eng M.

AU - Miyachi, Kiyomitsu

AU - Bignotto, Monica

AU - Battezzati, Pier Maria

AU - Lleo, Ana

AU - Leung, Patrick S

AU - Podda, Mauro

AU - Gershwin, M. Eric

AU - Invernizzi, Pietro

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N2 - A dual isotype (IgG, IgA) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) designed to provide enhanced detection of primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC)-specific autoantibodies against both major mitochondrial and nuclear antigens has been developed and recently become commercially available. The assay (PBC Screen) simultaneously detects IgG and IgA autoantibodies to the immunodominant portions of the 3 major mitochondrial (MIT3) and nuclear (gp210, and sp100) antigens. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of the PBC Screen to the combined performance obtained with individual IgG ELISAs to MIT3, gp210, and sp100 on a large group of selected patients from multiple centers. A total of 1175 patients with PBC and 1232 subjects without PBC were evaluated. Non-PBC groups included healthy controls (624) as well as individuals with autoimmune hepatitis (281), primary sclerosing cholangitis (77), viral hepatitis (91 hepatitis B and 98 hepatitis C), other liver diseases (31), and other infectious or autoimmune diseases (30). The PBC Screen at the receiver operator characteristic optimized cutoff of 27.8 units, had an overall sensitivity of 83.8%, specificity of 94.7% and area under curve of 0.9212. This was similar to the specificity of 96.1% obtained by the combined results of individual MIT3, sp100, and gp210 IgG ELISAs (kappa index at 0.898). Of the 253 PBC patients without AMA detectable by immunofluorescence, 113 (44.7%) were interpreted as positive for PBC-specific autoantibodies. In conclusion, the PBC Screen is an appropriate first-line test for the diagnosis of PBC, including for patients negative for markers assessed using conventional methods.

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