Pathology of coccidioidomycosis in llamas and alpacas

Julian A. Fernandez, Mireia N. Hidalgo, Emir Hodzic, Santiago S Diab, Francisco A Uzal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease caused by either Coccidioides immitis or Coccidioides posadasii. Anecdotal evidence suggests that camelids are particularly susceptible to this disease and that a relatively large percentage of pneumonias in these animals are caused by Coccidioides spp. In a search of 21 y (1992–2013) of records from the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory, we found 79 cases of coccidioidomycosis diagnosed in camelids; 66 (84%) had pneumonia and 13 (16%) had lesions only in organs other than the lungs. The organs most frequently affected were lung (84%) and liver (78%). Coccidioides spp. were the cause of pneumonia in 66 of 362 (18%) camelid cases during the study period. The lesions in affected organs were multifocal-to-coalescing pyogranulomas, which in most cases were visible grossly. Ten of the 12 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung samples tested by a universal Coccidioides spp. PCR assay were positive (4 C. immitis, 2 C. posadasii); the species could not be determined in 4 of the 10 cases positive by PCR. Coccidioidomycosis is an important cause of pneumonia in camelids in California, and can be caused by either C. immitis or C. posadasii.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
StateAccepted/In press - May 1 2018


  • Coccidioides immitis
  • Coccidioides posadasii
  • Camelids
  • Coccidioidesspp
  • coccidioidomycosis
  • pneumonia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of 'Pathology of coccidioidomycosis in llamas and alpacas'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this