Pathogenesis and diagnostic features of brain and ophthalmic damage produced by Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin

John W. Finnie, Mauricio A. Navarro, Francisco A. Uzal

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

Clostridium perfringens type D epsilon toxin (EXT) causes an important neurologic disorder of sheep, goats and, rarely, cattle. The disease can occur in peracute, acute, subacute, and chronic forms. High circulating levels of ETX produce vasculocentric brain lesions, in which microvascular endothelial injury results in diagnostically useful perivascular and intramural extravasations of plasma protein, especially in sheep, and less frequently in goats. With lower toxin doses, a more protracted clinical course tends to occur, particularly in sheep, leading to focal, bilaterally symmetrical, necrotic foci in certain brain regions. Although these morphologic features usually permit the diagnostic pathologist to make a definitive etiologic diagnosis, there are many aspects of the pathogenesis of these cerebral lesions that are not completely understood. ETX has also been shown to produce microvascular damage in the retina of rats, resulting in severe, diffuse vasogenic edema, similar to that found in brains exposed to this neurotoxin. The pathoclisis and vascular theories offer alternative explanations of the differential susceptibility of different brain regions to the same neurotoxic insult.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - Jan 1 2020

Keywords

  • Clostridium perfringens
  • epsilon toxin
  • review

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

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