Hypothesis: The recent increase in female medical school enrollment and emphasis on lifestyle considerations for both men and women pose challenges for residency recruitment and retention. This study was designed to assess interest in part-time surgical training. We hypothesized that more women than men would be interested in this option. Design: A Web-based survey soliciting demographic information and opinions about training priorities was distributed to medical students, surgery residents, fellows, and trained surgeons. Respondents were asked to express on a 5-point Likert scale interest in (and deterrents to) substituting 1 or more years of standard residency with a shorter workweek (< 80 hours but > 40 hours) in exchange for a proportionately overall longer length of training. Setting: The survey was located on the American College of Surgeons Web site. Participants: Medical students (482), surgical residents (789), fellows (179), and fully trained surgeons (2858) affiliated with at least 1 of 4 major surgical societies. Results: There were 4308 respondents (76% male). Of physician respondents, 9.1% had taken time out of residency for nonresearch reasons. Thirty-six percent of female and 24% of male students agreed to increased interest in surgical careers if part-time training were an option (P=.005). Twenty-five percent of female and 13% of male residents (P>.001) expressed interest in this option. Prolonged training was cited as the primary deterrent. Conclusions: Eleven percent to 36% of total male and female respondents expressed interest in pursuing parttime training. Significantly more women than men favored a part-time option.
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