AIM: A high level of parental control of feeding and disturbed energy self-regulation has previously been suggested as a mechanism for the accelerated growth observed in formula-fed compared with breast-fed infants. This study explored factors associated with parental control of feeding in a population of formula-fed infants with high levels of self-regulation.
METHODS: We included 141 formula-fed and 72 breast-fed infants from a randomised controlled trial, who were prospectively followed from under 2 months of age to 12 months of age. Anthropometry was recorded at baseline, 4, 6 and 12 months of age. Parental feeding control was assessed using a Child Feeding Questionnaire at 4 and 12 months.
RESULTS: The formula-fed groups fully compensated for different energy and protein densities by regulating their volume intakes. Parents of formula-fed infants had a lower pressure to eat score at 12 months than parents of breast-fed infants. A high parental restrictive score at 12 months was associated with weight at 12 months and high parental pressure to eat score at 12 months with body mass index at 12 months. Neither were associated with feeding mode.
CONCLUSION: Formula-fed infants had a high level of energy self-regulation and were subjected to low parental control. Parental control of feeding was mainly influenced by infant growth.
- Energy regulation
- Formula feeding
- Parental control
ASJC Scopus subject areas