Palmitoleate (16: 1) in serum lipid fractions is a candidate biomarker of low fat diet adherence

S. D. Phinney, W. Mueller, A. B. Tang, M. Mukutmoni-Norris, Siddika E Karakas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Reduced fat intake may be beneficial in reducing coronary disease and cancer risk, but long-term outpatient trials are impeded by limited measures of subject adherence to a low fat intake. We sequentially obtained fàsting serum from 24 post-menopausal healthy women maintained on outpatient eucaloric diets after 4 wk at 31% energy as fat, after 6 wk at 25% fat, and after 6 wk at 15% fat. Adipose tissue (AT) was obtained after the 31% and 15% fat diet phases. Dietary energy was adjusted to hold weight stable, requiring increases of 98 and 168 kcal/d during the 25% and 15% fat diets. The initial body mass index (BMI) was 29.5 ±1.3 kg/of, ranging from 18.9 to 42.6. Initial and final weights and % body fat were 76.3±3.4 and 75.3±3.4 kg, and 32.7± 1.2% and 32.6±1.3%, respectively. Serum triglycéride (TG) and cholesteryl ester (CE) fatty acids determined as wt% by gas chromatography are listed below. 16:0 16:1 18:l<o9 18:26 18:3o)3 Diet Fat CE TG CE TG CE TG CE TG CE TG 31% 10.04 21.44 3.36 5.21 14.59 33.42 51.66 20.38 0.81 OS 25% 10.69 23.38 4.40 5.97 15.74 33.11 48.24 19.16 0.87 147 15% 11.73 24.56 6.17 6.36 18.15 33.00 41.77 15.63 0.80 lU P(31vl5%) .0001 .0001 Ixia'IxlO-'.OOOl 1x10-' IxlO'7 BMI correlated with initial AT 16:1 (r=0.41, P<0.05). While other AT fatty acids remained constant after 3 months of reduced fat intake, 16:1 increased from 7.34±0.29 to 7.65±0.32 wt% (P=0.01). The fall in serum CE and TG 18:2u6 can be explained by reduced 18:2u6 intake, but was not reflected in AT fatty acid composition. The rise in serum and AT 16:1 cannot be explained by 16:1 intake, and most likely results from lipogenesis. The 84% rise in serum CE 16:1 as dietary fat was reduced makes it an excellent candidate biomarker of low fat diet adherence.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalFASEB Journal
Issue number3
StatePublished - 1996

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences (miscellaneous)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Biochemistry
  • Cell Biology


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