Pain in Birds: The Anatomical and Physiological Basis

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

2 Scopus citations

Abstract

This article reviews the current understanding of the anatomy and physiology of pain in birds, with consideration of some of its differences from mammalian pain. From transduction to transmission, modulation, projection, and perception, birds possess the neurologic components necessary to respond to painful stimuli and they likely perceive pain in a manner similar to mammals. This article also describes the current understating of opioid receptors, inflammatory mediators, and additional factors in the modulation of pain in avian species.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)17-31
Number of pages15
JournalVeterinary Clinics of North America - Exotic Animal Practice
Volume21
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018

Keywords

  • Avian
  • CNS
  • Nociception
  • Pain
  • PNS

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Small Animals

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