This article reviews the current understanding of the anatomy and physiology of pain in birds, with consideration of some of its differences from mammalian pain. From transduction to transmission, modulation, projection, and perception, birds possess the neurologic components necessary to respond to painful stimuli and they likely perceive pain in a manner similar to mammals. This article also describes the current understating of opioid receptors, inflammatory mediators, and additional factors in the modulation of pain in avian species.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||15|
|Journal||Veterinary Clinics of North America - Exotic Animal Practice|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2018|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Small Animals