Oxygen Tension Modulates Differentiation and Primary Macrophage Functions in the Human Monocytic THP-1 Cell Line

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24 Scopus citations


The human THP-1 cell line is widely used as an in vitro model system for studying macrophage differentiation and function. Conventional culture conditions for these cells consist of ambient oxygen pressure (~20% v/v) and medium supplemented with the thiol 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME) and serum. In consideration of the redox activities of O2 and 2-ME, and the extensive experimental evidence supporting a role for reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the differentiation and function of macrophages, we addressed the question of whether culturing THP-1 cells under a more physiologically relevant oxygen tension (5% O2) in the absence of 2-ME and serum would alter THP-1 cell physiology. Comparisons of cultures maintained in 18% O2 versus 5% O2 indicated that reducing oxygen tension had no effect on the proliferation of undifferentiated THP-1 cells. However, decreasing the oxygen tension to 5% O2 significantly increased the rate of phorbol ester-induced differentiation of THP-1 cells into macrophage-like cells as well as the metabolic activity of both undifferentiated and PMA-differentiated THP-1 cells. Removal of both 2-ME and serum from the medium decreased the proliferation of undifferentiated THP-1 cells but increased metabolic activity and the rate of differentiation under either oxygen tension. In differentiated THP-1 cells, lowering the oxygen tension to 5% O2 decreased phagocytic activity, the constitutive release of β-hexosaminidase and LPS-induced NF-κB activation but enhanced LPS-stimulated release of cytokines. Collectively, these data demonstrate that oxygen tension influences THP-1 cell differentiation and primary macrophage functions, and suggest that culturing these cells under tightly regulated oxygen tension in the absence of exogenous reducing agent and serum is likely to provide a physiologically relevant baseline from which to study the role of the local redox environment in regulating THP-1 cell physiology.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere54926
JournalPLoS One
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 29 2013

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)


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