Ruthenium red is a well known inhibitor of Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria in vitro. However, its utility as an inhibitor of Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria in vivo or in situ in intact cells is limited because of its inhibitory effects on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ release channel and other cellular processes. We have synthesized a ruthenium derivative and found it to be an oxygen-bridged dinuclear ruthenium amine complex. It has the same chemical structure as Ru360 reported previously (Emerson, J., Clarke, M. J, Ying, W-L., and Sanadi, D. R. (1993) J. AM. Chem. Soc. 115, 11799-11805). Ru360 has been shown to be a potent inhibitor of Ca2+- stimulated respiration of liver mitochondria in vitro. However, the specificity of Ru360 on Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria in vitro or in intact cells has not been determined. The present study reports in detail the potency, the effectiveness, and the mechanism of inhibition of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake by Ru360 and its specificity in vitro in isolated mitochondria and in situ in isolated cardiac myocytes. Ru360 was more potent (IC50 = 0.184 nM) than ruthenium red (IC50 = 6.85 nM) in inhibiting Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria. 103Ru360 was found to bind to isolated mitochondria with high affinity (K(d) = 0.34 nM, B(max) = 80 fmol/mg of mitochondrial protein). The IC50 of 103Ru360 for the inhibition of Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria was also 0.2 nM, indicating that saturation of a specific binding site is responsible for the inhibition of Ca2+ uptake. Ru360, as high as 10 μM, produced no effect on sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ uptake or release, sarcolemmal Na+/Ca2+ exchange, actomyosin ATPase activity, L- type Ca2+ channel current, cytosolic Ca2+ transients, or cell shortening. 103Ru360 was taken up by isolated myocytes in a time-dependent bipbasic manner. Ru360 (10 μM) applied outside intact voltage-clamped ventricular myocytes prevented Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria in situ where the cells were progressively loaded with Ca2+ via sarcolemmal Na+/Ca2+ exchange by depolarization to +110 mV. We conclude that Ru360 specifically blocks Ca2+ uptake into mitochondria and can be used in intact cells.
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