Overwintering Studies on Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Kern County, California: Survival and the Experimental Induction and Termination of Diapause

William Reisen, Richard P. Meyer, Marilyn M. Milby

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

12 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

More than 90% of female Culex tarsalis Coquillett collected from shelters during late autumn survived without blood or carbohydrate feeding for 35 days in a bioenvironmental chamber (BOD) set at 9 C and 10:14 (L:D) photoperiod. Mortality was reduced subsequently by offering females 10% sucrose. Ten females imbibed a blood meal and oviposited after transfer to an insectary (25 ± 2°C, 16:8 photoperiod), 106â132 days after collection. Three laboratory strains of C. tarsalis from California and Arizona failed to enter diapause uniformly when reared under simulated midwinter or autumnal conditions in a BOD. Vitellogenesis progressed to or beyond follicular stage I-II in 25-80% of the dissected females. Only 0-60% of females dissected after a 2-week postemergence period were inseminated. Although females imbibed a blood meal and oviposited when exposed to insectary conditions after a simulated winter period, fecundity and, especially, fertility were low, reflecting the low insemination rate. Thus, diapause would not be an efficient addition to Culex mosquito insectary culture methodology. Mosquitoes from a laboratory colony and the F1 progeny of field-collected females originating from the same site were reared and maintained as adults under natural, seminatural, and experimental diapause induction regimens. A higher proportion of the F1 progeny of field-collected females entered diapause than did laboratory-selected females. Some females in all regimens failed to respond to diapause induction cues and arrest follicular maturation at stage I. Thus, field populations from Kern County, Calif., responded heterogeneously to diapause induction cues and the genome that failed to enter diapause was selected by laboratory colonization.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)664-673
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of the Entomological Society of America
Volume79
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - May 1 1986
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Culex tarsalis
diapause
overwintering
Culicidae
blood meal
photoperiod
Culex
vitellogenesis
insemination
fecundity
sucrose
autumn
carbohydrates

Keywords

  • colonization
  • Culex tarsalis
  • diapause
  • overwintering
  • photoperiod

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Insect Science

Cite this

@article{a94bea17a1de4cb7b85406566c7b65de,
title = "Overwintering Studies on Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) in Kern County, California: Survival and the Experimental Induction and Termination of Diapause",
abstract = "More than 90{\%} of female Culex tarsalis Coquillett collected from shelters during late autumn survived without blood or carbohydrate feeding for 35 days in a bioenvironmental chamber (BOD) set at 9 C and 10:14 (L:D) photoperiod. Mortality was reduced subsequently by offering females 10{\%} sucrose. Ten females imbibed a blood meal and oviposited after transfer to an insectary (25 ± 2°C, 16:8 photoperiod), 106{\^a}132 days after collection. Three laboratory strains of C. tarsalis from California and Arizona failed to enter diapause uniformly when reared under simulated midwinter or autumnal conditions in a BOD. Vitellogenesis progressed to or beyond follicular stage I-II in 25-80{\%} of the dissected females. Only 0-60{\%} of females dissected after a 2-week postemergence period were inseminated. Although females imbibed a blood meal and oviposited when exposed to insectary conditions after a simulated winter period, fecundity and, especially, fertility were low, reflecting the low insemination rate. Thus, diapause would not be an efficient addition to Culex mosquito insectary culture methodology. Mosquitoes from a laboratory colony and the F1 progeny of field-collected females originating from the same site were reared and maintained as adults under natural, seminatural, and experimental diapause induction regimens. A higher proportion of the F1 progeny of field-collected females entered diapause than did laboratory-selected females. Some females in all regimens failed to respond to diapause induction cues and arrest follicular maturation at stage I. Thus, field populations from Kern County, Calif., responded heterogeneously to diapause induction cues and the genome that failed to enter diapause was selected by laboratory colonization.",
keywords = "colonization, Culex tarsalis, diapause, overwintering, photoperiod",
author = "William Reisen and Meyer, {Richard P.} and Milby, {Marilyn M.}",
year = "1986",
month = "5",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1093/aesa/79.4.664",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "79",
pages = "664--673",
journal = "Annals of the Entomological Society of America",
issn = "0013-8746",
publisher = "Entomological Society of America",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Overwintering Studies on Culex tarsalis (Diptera

T2 - Culicidae) in Kern County, California: Survival and the Experimental Induction and Termination of Diapause

AU - Reisen, William

AU - Meyer, Richard P.

AU - Milby, Marilyn M.

PY - 1986/5/1

Y1 - 1986/5/1

N2 - More than 90% of female Culex tarsalis Coquillett collected from shelters during late autumn survived without blood or carbohydrate feeding for 35 days in a bioenvironmental chamber (BOD) set at 9 C and 10:14 (L:D) photoperiod. Mortality was reduced subsequently by offering females 10% sucrose. Ten females imbibed a blood meal and oviposited after transfer to an insectary (25 ± 2°C, 16:8 photoperiod), 106â132 days after collection. Three laboratory strains of C. tarsalis from California and Arizona failed to enter diapause uniformly when reared under simulated midwinter or autumnal conditions in a BOD. Vitellogenesis progressed to or beyond follicular stage I-II in 25-80% of the dissected females. Only 0-60% of females dissected after a 2-week postemergence period were inseminated. Although females imbibed a blood meal and oviposited when exposed to insectary conditions after a simulated winter period, fecundity and, especially, fertility were low, reflecting the low insemination rate. Thus, diapause would not be an efficient addition to Culex mosquito insectary culture methodology. Mosquitoes from a laboratory colony and the F1 progeny of field-collected females originating from the same site were reared and maintained as adults under natural, seminatural, and experimental diapause induction regimens. A higher proportion of the F1 progeny of field-collected females entered diapause than did laboratory-selected females. Some females in all regimens failed to respond to diapause induction cues and arrest follicular maturation at stage I. Thus, field populations from Kern County, Calif., responded heterogeneously to diapause induction cues and the genome that failed to enter diapause was selected by laboratory colonization.

AB - More than 90% of female Culex tarsalis Coquillett collected from shelters during late autumn survived without blood or carbohydrate feeding for 35 days in a bioenvironmental chamber (BOD) set at 9 C and 10:14 (L:D) photoperiod. Mortality was reduced subsequently by offering females 10% sucrose. Ten females imbibed a blood meal and oviposited after transfer to an insectary (25 ± 2°C, 16:8 photoperiod), 106â132 days after collection. Three laboratory strains of C. tarsalis from California and Arizona failed to enter diapause uniformly when reared under simulated midwinter or autumnal conditions in a BOD. Vitellogenesis progressed to or beyond follicular stage I-II in 25-80% of the dissected females. Only 0-60% of females dissected after a 2-week postemergence period were inseminated. Although females imbibed a blood meal and oviposited when exposed to insectary conditions after a simulated winter period, fecundity and, especially, fertility were low, reflecting the low insemination rate. Thus, diapause would not be an efficient addition to Culex mosquito insectary culture methodology. Mosquitoes from a laboratory colony and the F1 progeny of field-collected females originating from the same site were reared and maintained as adults under natural, seminatural, and experimental diapause induction regimens. A higher proportion of the F1 progeny of field-collected females entered diapause than did laboratory-selected females. Some females in all regimens failed to respond to diapause induction cues and arrest follicular maturation at stage I. Thus, field populations from Kern County, Calif., responded heterogeneously to diapause induction cues and the genome that failed to enter diapause was selected by laboratory colonization.

KW - colonization

KW - Culex tarsalis

KW - diapause

KW - overwintering

KW - photoperiod

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0041825026&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0041825026&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1093/aesa/79.4.664

DO - 10.1093/aesa/79.4.664

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0041825026

VL - 79

SP - 664

EP - 673

JO - Annals of the Entomological Society of America

JF - Annals of the Entomological Society of America

SN - 0013-8746

IS - 3

ER -