Outcomes and factors associated with infant abusive head trauma in the US

Miriam A Nuno, Lindsey Pelissier, Kunal Varshneya, Matthew A. Adamo, Doniel Drazin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Object Head trauma is the leading cause of death in abused children, particularly prior to the age of 2 years. An awareness of factors associated with this condition as well as with a higher risk of mortality is important to improve outcomes and prevent the occurrence of these events. The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes and factors associated with poor outcomes in infants with diagnosed abusive head trauma (AHT). Patient characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and secondary conditions such as retinal bleeding, contusion, and fractures were considered. Methods Data were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. From the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) sample, the authors identified infants no older than 23 months who had been diagnosed with AHT in 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009. All statistical analyses were conducted in SAS 9.2. Descriptive statistics were provided, and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to evaluate factors associated with mortality and nonroutine discharge. Results A total of 5195 infants were analyzed in this study. Most infants (85.5%) had ages ranging between 0 and 11 months and were male (61.6%). Overall mortality was 10.8%, with a rate of 9.8% in the 0- to 11-month-old cohort and 16.5% in the 12- to 23-month-olds (p = 0.0003). The overall nonroutine discharge rate of 25.6% increased significantly from 23.3% to 39.0% with increasing age (0-11 vs 12-23 months of age, p < 0.0001). Assuming a multivariate model that adjusted for multiple confounders, the authors found that older infants (12-23 vs 0-11 months, OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.18- 2.77) with a secondary diagnosis of retinal bleeding (OR 2.85, 95% CI 2.02-4.00) or shaken baby syndrome (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.48-2.94) had an increased risk of mortality; these factors were similarly associated with an increased odds of a nonroutine discharge. A higher income ($30,001-$35,000 vs $1-$24,999) was associated with a reduction in the odds of mortality (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.29-0.72). In the subset of cases (1695 [32.6%]) that specified the perpetrator involved in infant injury, the authors found that the father, stepfather, or boyfriend was most frequently reported (67.4%). A trend for a higher AHT incidence was documented in the early ages (peak at 2 months) compared with older ages. Conclusions Despite the higher incidence of AHT among infants during the earlier months of life, higher mortality was documented in the 12- to 23-month-olds. Retinal bleeding and shaken baby syndrome were secondary diagnoses associated with higher mortality and nonroutine discharge. Males (67.4%) were overwhelmingly documented as the perpetrators involved in the injury of these infants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)515-522
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics
Volume16
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Craniocerebral Trauma
Mortality
Shaken Baby Syndrome
Hemorrhage
Logistic Models
Contusions
Health Services Research
Incidence
Wounds and Injuries
Fathers
Health Care Costs
Inpatients
Cause of Death
Databases

Keywords

  • Abusive head trauma
  • Confidence interval
  • Contusion
  • Fracture
  • Hematoma
  • In-hospital mortality
  • Non-routine discharge
  • Perpetrator
  • Retina bleeding
  • Shaken baby syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)

Cite this

Outcomes and factors associated with infant abusive head trauma in the US. / Nuno, Miriam A; Pelissier, Lindsey; Varshneya, Kunal; Adamo, Matthew A.; Drazin, Doniel.

In: Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, Vol. 16, No. 5, 01.11.2015, p. 515-522.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Nuno, Miriam A ; Pelissier, Lindsey ; Varshneya, Kunal ; Adamo, Matthew A. ; Drazin, Doniel. / Outcomes and factors associated with infant abusive head trauma in the US. In: Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics. 2015 ; Vol. 16, No. 5. pp. 515-522.
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abstract = "Object Head trauma is the leading cause of death in abused children, particularly prior to the age of 2 years. An awareness of factors associated with this condition as well as with a higher risk of mortality is important to improve outcomes and prevent the occurrence of these events. The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes and factors associated with poor outcomes in infants with diagnosed abusive head trauma (AHT). Patient characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and secondary conditions such as retinal bleeding, contusion, and fractures were considered. Methods Data were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. From the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) sample, the authors identified infants no older than 23 months who had been diagnosed with AHT in 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009. All statistical analyses were conducted in SAS 9.2. Descriptive statistics were provided, and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to evaluate factors associated with mortality and nonroutine discharge. Results A total of 5195 infants were analyzed in this study. Most infants (85.5{\%}) had ages ranging between 0 and 11 months and were male (61.6{\%}). Overall mortality was 10.8{\%}, with a rate of 9.8{\%} in the 0- to 11-month-old cohort and 16.5{\%} in the 12- to 23-month-olds (p = 0.0003). The overall nonroutine discharge rate of 25.6{\%} increased significantly from 23.3{\%} to 39.0{\%} with increasing age (0-11 vs 12-23 months of age, p < 0.0001). Assuming a multivariate model that adjusted for multiple confounders, the authors found that older infants (12-23 vs 0-11 months, OR 1.81, 95{\%} CI 1.18- 2.77) with a secondary diagnosis of retinal bleeding (OR 2.85, 95{\%} CI 2.02-4.00) or shaken baby syndrome (OR 2.09, 95{\%} CI 1.48-2.94) had an increased risk of mortality; these factors were similarly associated with an increased odds of a nonroutine discharge. A higher income ($30,001-$35,000 vs $1-$24,999) was associated with a reduction in the odds of mortality (OR 0.46, 95{\%} CI 0.29-0.72). In the subset of cases (1695 [32.6{\%}]) that specified the perpetrator involved in infant injury, the authors found that the father, stepfather, or boyfriend was most frequently reported (67.4{\%}). A trend for a higher AHT incidence was documented in the early ages (peak at 2 months) compared with older ages. Conclusions Despite the higher incidence of AHT among infants during the earlier months of life, higher mortality was documented in the 12- to 23-month-olds. Retinal bleeding and shaken baby syndrome were secondary diagnoses associated with higher mortality and nonroutine discharge. Males (67.4{\%}) were overwhelmingly documented as the perpetrators involved in the injury of these infants.",
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T1 - Outcomes and factors associated with infant abusive head trauma in the US

AU - Nuno, Miriam A

AU - Pelissier, Lindsey

AU - Varshneya, Kunal

AU - Adamo, Matthew A.

AU - Drazin, Doniel

PY - 2015/11/1

Y1 - 2015/11/1

N2 - Object Head trauma is the leading cause of death in abused children, particularly prior to the age of 2 years. An awareness of factors associated with this condition as well as with a higher risk of mortality is important to improve outcomes and prevent the occurrence of these events. The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes and factors associated with poor outcomes in infants with diagnosed abusive head trauma (AHT). Patient characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and secondary conditions such as retinal bleeding, contusion, and fractures were considered. Methods Data were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. From the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) sample, the authors identified infants no older than 23 months who had been diagnosed with AHT in 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009. All statistical analyses were conducted in SAS 9.2. Descriptive statistics were provided, and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to evaluate factors associated with mortality and nonroutine discharge. Results A total of 5195 infants were analyzed in this study. Most infants (85.5%) had ages ranging between 0 and 11 months and were male (61.6%). Overall mortality was 10.8%, with a rate of 9.8% in the 0- to 11-month-old cohort and 16.5% in the 12- to 23-month-olds (p = 0.0003). The overall nonroutine discharge rate of 25.6% increased significantly from 23.3% to 39.0% with increasing age (0-11 vs 12-23 months of age, p < 0.0001). Assuming a multivariate model that adjusted for multiple confounders, the authors found that older infants (12-23 vs 0-11 months, OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.18- 2.77) with a secondary diagnosis of retinal bleeding (OR 2.85, 95% CI 2.02-4.00) or shaken baby syndrome (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.48-2.94) had an increased risk of mortality; these factors were similarly associated with an increased odds of a nonroutine discharge. A higher income ($30,001-$35,000 vs $1-$24,999) was associated with a reduction in the odds of mortality (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.29-0.72). In the subset of cases (1695 [32.6%]) that specified the perpetrator involved in infant injury, the authors found that the father, stepfather, or boyfriend was most frequently reported (67.4%). A trend for a higher AHT incidence was documented in the early ages (peak at 2 months) compared with older ages. Conclusions Despite the higher incidence of AHT among infants during the earlier months of life, higher mortality was documented in the 12- to 23-month-olds. Retinal bleeding and shaken baby syndrome were secondary diagnoses associated with higher mortality and nonroutine discharge. Males (67.4%) were overwhelmingly documented as the perpetrators involved in the injury of these infants.

AB - Object Head trauma is the leading cause of death in abused children, particularly prior to the age of 2 years. An awareness of factors associated with this condition as well as with a higher risk of mortality is important to improve outcomes and prevent the occurrence of these events. The objective of this study was to evaluate outcomes and factors associated with poor outcomes in infants with diagnosed abusive head trauma (AHT). Patient characteristics, socioeconomic factors, and secondary conditions such as retinal bleeding, contusion, and fractures were considered. Methods Data were obtained from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project of the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. From the Kids' Inpatient Database (KID) sample, the authors identified infants no older than 23 months who had been diagnosed with AHT in 2000, 2003, 2006, and 2009. All statistical analyses were conducted in SAS 9.2. Descriptive statistics were provided, and multivariate logistic regression models were applied to evaluate factors associated with mortality and nonroutine discharge. Results A total of 5195 infants were analyzed in this study. Most infants (85.5%) had ages ranging between 0 and 11 months and were male (61.6%). Overall mortality was 10.8%, with a rate of 9.8% in the 0- to 11-month-old cohort and 16.5% in the 12- to 23-month-olds (p = 0.0003). The overall nonroutine discharge rate of 25.6% increased significantly from 23.3% to 39.0% with increasing age (0-11 vs 12-23 months of age, p < 0.0001). Assuming a multivariate model that adjusted for multiple confounders, the authors found that older infants (12-23 vs 0-11 months, OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.18- 2.77) with a secondary diagnosis of retinal bleeding (OR 2.85, 95% CI 2.02-4.00) or shaken baby syndrome (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.48-2.94) had an increased risk of mortality; these factors were similarly associated with an increased odds of a nonroutine discharge. A higher income ($30,001-$35,000 vs $1-$24,999) was associated with a reduction in the odds of mortality (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.29-0.72). In the subset of cases (1695 [32.6%]) that specified the perpetrator involved in infant injury, the authors found that the father, stepfather, or boyfriend was most frequently reported (67.4%). A trend for a higher AHT incidence was documented in the early ages (peak at 2 months) compared with older ages. Conclusions Despite the higher incidence of AHT among infants during the earlier months of life, higher mortality was documented in the 12- to 23-month-olds. Retinal bleeding and shaken baby syndrome were secondary diagnoses associated with higher mortality and nonroutine discharge. Males (67.4%) were overwhelmingly documented as the perpetrators involved in the injury of these infants.

KW - Abusive head trauma

KW - Confidence interval

KW - Contusion

KW - Fracture

KW - Hematoma

KW - In-hospital mortality

KW - Non-routine discharge

KW - Perpetrator

KW - Retina bleeding

KW - Shaken baby syndrome

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