Objectives: To evaluate clinical outcome in dogs after renal transplantation and determine predictors of outcome. Study Design: Retrospective case series. Animals: Dogs (n = 26) that had renal allograft transplantation. Methods: Medical records (1994-2006) of 26 consecutive cases of dogs that had kidney transplantation were reviewed. History, signalment, pre- and postoperative clinicopathologic and monitoring variables, postoperative complications, immunosuppressive therapy, and survival were recorded. Results: Median survival was 24 days (range, 0.5 to 4014 days) with a probability of survival to 15 days of 50% and the 100-day survival probability was 36%. Cause of death was attributed to thromboembolic disease in 8 dogs, infection in 6 dogs, and rejection in 1 dog. The only factor significantly associated with an increased likelihood of death was increasing age at time of surgery (P = .024). Conclusions: Canine renal transplantation in clinical patients is associated with a high morbidity and mortality and increasing recipient age has a negative association with outcome. Thromboembolic complications are a major cause of death in the immediate postoperative period and effective anticoagulation protocols may greatly improve survival in the future.
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