Organophosphorus insecticides induce airway hyperreactivity by decreasing neuronal M2 muscarinic receptor function independent of acetylcholinesterase inhibition

Pamela J Lein, Allison D. Fryer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

54 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We previously demonstrated that the organophosphorus (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos potentiates vagally induced bronchoconstriction independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition by decreasing the function of neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors that normally inhibit acetylcholine release from parasympathetic nerves supplying airway smooth muscle. However, it has been reported that different OPs may not affect muscarinic receptors equally. To determine if the effects of chlorpyrifos on airway hyperreactivity can be generalized to other OPs, we tested whether parathion and diazinon also inhibit neuronal M2 receptor function resulting in airway hyperreactivity. In control animals, the M2 agonist pilocarpine inhibits vagally induced bronchoconstriction in a dose-related manner. Treatment of guinea pigs with either parathion (1-10 mg/kg, sc) or diazinon (0.75-75 mg/kg, sc) shifted pilocarpine dose-response curves significantly to the right, indicating loss of neuronal M2 receptor function. These OP treatments also significantly potentiated vagally induced bronchoconstriction. Treatments that did not decrease M2 receptor function (parathion at 0.1 mg/kg, sc, or the non-OP insecticide permethrin at 150 mg/kg, sc) also did not cause airway hyperreactivity. None of the OP treatments altered bronchoconstriction induced by iv acetylcholine or methacholine in vagotomized guinea pigs, suggesting that OP-induced airway hyperreactivity is not due to altered function of muscarinic receptors on airway smooth muscle or to AChE inhibition. AChE assays of lung, blood, and brain confirmed that parathion and diazinon decreased M2 function at concentrations that did not inhibit AChE. These data suggest that multiple diethyl phosphorothionate OPs cause airway hyperreactivity via a common mechanism of M2 receptor dysfunction independent of AChE inhibition.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)166-176
Number of pages11
JournalToxicological Sciences
Volume83
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2005
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Muscarinic M2 Receptors
Parathion
Acetylcholinesterase
Insecticides
Bronchoconstriction
Diazinon
Chlorpyrifos
Pilocarpine
Muscarinic Receptors
Acetylcholine
Smooth Muscle
Guinea Pigs
Permethrin
Muscle
Methacholine Chloride
Lung
Assays
Brain
Animals
Blood

Keywords

  • Airway hyperreactivity
  • Asthma
  • M2 muscarinic receptor
  • Organophosphorus pesticides

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology

Cite this

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abstract = "We previously demonstrated that the organophosphorus (OP) insecticide chlorpyrifos potentiates vagally induced bronchoconstriction independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition by decreasing the function of neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors that normally inhibit acetylcholine release from parasympathetic nerves supplying airway smooth muscle. However, it has been reported that different OPs may not affect muscarinic receptors equally. To determine if the effects of chlorpyrifos on airway hyperreactivity can be generalized to other OPs, we tested whether parathion and diazinon also inhibit neuronal M2 receptor function resulting in airway hyperreactivity. In control animals, the M2 agonist pilocarpine inhibits vagally induced bronchoconstriction in a dose-related manner. Treatment of guinea pigs with either parathion (1-10 mg/kg, sc) or diazinon (0.75-75 mg/kg, sc) shifted pilocarpine dose-response curves significantly to the right, indicating loss of neuronal M2 receptor function. These OP treatments also significantly potentiated vagally induced bronchoconstriction. Treatments that did not decrease M2 receptor function (parathion at 0.1 mg/kg, sc, or the non-OP insecticide permethrin at 150 mg/kg, sc) also did not cause airway hyperreactivity. None of the OP treatments altered bronchoconstriction induced by iv acetylcholine or methacholine in vagotomized guinea pigs, suggesting that OP-induced airway hyperreactivity is not due to altered function of muscarinic receptors on airway smooth muscle or to AChE inhibition. AChE assays of lung, blood, and brain confirmed that parathion and diazinon decreased M2 function at concentrations that did not inhibit AChE. These data suggest that multiple diethyl phosphorothionate OPs cause airway hyperreactivity via a common mechanism of M2 receptor dysfunction independent of AChE inhibition.",
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