Oral manifestations of connective tissue disease and novel therapeutic approaches

Kenisha R. Heath, Roy S. Rogers, Nasim Fazel

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), systemic sclerosis (SSc), and Sjögren syndrome (SS) have presented many difficulties both in their diagnosis and treatment. Known causes for this difficulty include uncertainty of disease etiology, the multitude of clinical presentations, the unpredictable disease course, and the variable cell types, soluble mediators, and tissue factors that are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of connective tissue diseases. The characteristic oral findings seen with these specific connective tissue diseases may assist with more swift diagnostic capability. Additionally, the recent use of biologics may redefine the success rate in the treatment and management of the disease. In this review we describe the oral manifestations associated with SLE, SSc, and SS and review the novel biologic drugs used to treat these conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalDermatology Online Journal
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Dermatology


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