Osteosarcoma in dogs is a heterogeneous disease entity with regard to its histologic, clinical and biologic behaviour. Differences in behaviour are associated with tumour location. Oral and maxillofacial osteosarcomas are typically reported as a component of the broader classifications of axial osteosarcoma or osteosarcoma of flat bones to differentiate them from appendicular osteosarcoma. Similar to human oral and maxillofacial osteosarcoma, in dogs, these also appear to have less aggressive behaviour than appendicular osteosarcoma. Ideally, local control is achieved with wide surgical resection that results in tumour-free margins. Failure of local control is the most common contributor to poor prognosis. Chemotherapy and radiation treatment are reported to have variable outcomes. The aim of this article is to review the literature on oral and maxillofacial osteosarcoma in dogs in comparison to appendicular and axial osteosarcoma. Similarities and differences between oral and maxillofacial osteosarcoma in humans are addressed.
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