Background: Safe and effective oral antibiotics are needed for outpatient management of moderate to severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). Objective: We describe a post-hoc analysis of adults with CABP managed as outpatients from the Lefamulin Evaluation Against Pneumonia (LEAP) 2 double-blind, noninferiority, phase 3 clinical trial. Methods: LEAP 2 compared the efficacy and safety of oral lefamulin 600 mg every 12 h (5 days) vs. oral moxifloxacin 400 mg every 24 h (7 days) in adults (inpatients and outpatients) with Pneumonia Outcomes Research Team (PORT) risk classes II‒IV. Results: Overall, 41% (151 of 368) of patients receiving lefamulin and 43% (159 of 368) of patients receiving moxifloxacin started treatment as outpatients—44% and 40%, respectively, were PORT risk class III/IV, and 21% in both groups had CURB-65 scores of 2‒3. Early clinical response (at 96 ± 24 h) and investigator assessment of clinical response success rates at test of cure (5‒10 days after last study drug dose) were high and similar in both groups among all (lefamulin, 91% vs. moxifloxacin, 89‒90%), PORT risk class III/IV (89‒91% vs. 88‒91%), and CURB-65 score 2‒3 (87‒90% vs. 82‒88%) outpatients. Few outpatients (lefamulin, 2.6%; moxifloxacin, 2.5%) discontinued the study drug because of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs). No outpatient in the lefamulin group was hospitalized for a TEAE, compared with 5 patients (3%), including two deaths, in the moxifloxacin group. Conclusions: These data suggest that 5 days of oral lefamulin can be given in lieu of fluoroquinolones for outpatient treatment of adults with CABP and PORT risk class III/IV or CURB-65 scores of 2‒3.
- community-acquired bacterial pneumonia
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Emergency Medicine