Optimization of Methods for Articular Cartilage Surface Tissue Engineering: Cell Density and Transforming Growth Factor Beta Are Critical for Self-Assembly and Lubricin Secretion

Kenjiro Iwasa, A Hari Reddi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objective: Lubricin/superficial zone protein (SZP)/proteoglycan4 (PRG4) plays an important role in boundary lubrication in articular cartilage. Lubricin is secreted by superficial zone chondrocytes and synoviocytes of the synovium. The specific objective of this investigation is to optimize the methods for tissue engineering of articular cartilage surface. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of cell density on the self-assembly of superficial zone chondrocytes and lubricin secretion as a functional assessment. Design: Superficial zone chondrocytes were cultivated as a monolayer at low, medium, and high densities. Chondrocytes at the three different densities were treated with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β)1 twice a week or daily, and the accumulated lubricin in the culture medium was analyzed by immunoblots and quantitated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: Cell numbers in low and medium densities were increased by TGF-β1; whereas cell numbers in high-density cell cultures were decreased by twice-a-week treatment of TGF-β1. On the other hand, the cell numbers were maintained by daily TGF-β treatment. Immunoblots and quantitation of lubricin by ELISA analysis indicated that TGF-β1 stimulated lubricin secretion by superficial zone chondrocytes at all densities with twice-a-week TGF-β treatment. It is noteworthy that the daily treatment of TGF-β1 increased lubricin much higher compared with twice-a-week treatment. Conclusions: These data demonstrate that daily treatment is optimal for the TGF-β1 response in a higher density of monolayer cultures. These findings have implications for self-assembly of surface zone chondrocytes of articular cartilage for application in tissue engineering of articular cartilage surface.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)389-395
Number of pages7
JournalTissue Engineering - Part C: Methods
Volume23
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017

Keywords

  • articular cartilage
  • cell density
  • Chondrocytes
  • TGF-beta

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Bioengineering
  • Biomedical Engineering

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