Background: Cortical visual impairment (CVI) is the most common cause of pediatric visual impairment in developed countries, and cerebral palsy (CP) is diagnosed in approximately half of children with CVI. It is unknown whether children with CVI who also have CP (CVI+CP) have different characteristics and outcomes (with regard to visual acuity, strabismus, and response to strabismus surgery) than children with CVI without CP (CVI−CP). Methods: The medical records of all children with CVI, with and without CP, evaluated at our institution between 2013 and 2019 were retrospectively reviewed. Presentation and outcomes of children with CVI+CP were compared to those with CVI−CP. Results: A total of 151 children with CVI+CP and 153 children with CVI−CP were included. Children with CVI+CP were more likely to be diagnosed with significant refractive error (53.6% vs 41.2%; P = 0.03), optic atrophy (46.4% vs 32.7%; P = 0.01), and strabismus (82.8% vs 72.5%; P = 0.03) at presentation. Good ocular alignment after strabismus surgery was achieved in 30% of children with CVI+CP and 63.6% of children with CVI−CP (P = 0.48). Of 9 children with long-term (≥8 years) postoperative follow-up, 100% of CVI−CP patients achieved good outcomes compared with 0% of CVI+CP patients (P = 0.0079). Visual acuity at presentation and the percentage of patients who experienced improvement in visual acuity did not differ between groups. Conclusions: In our study cohort, children with CVI+CP had a higher likelihood of ophthalmic comorbidities and may have worse long-term strabismus surgery outcomes than children with CVI−CP.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health