Occupational paraquat exposure of agricultural workers in large Costa Rican farms

Kiyoung Lee, Eun Kee Park, Maria Stoecklin-Marois, Marja E. Koivunen, Shirley J. Gee, Bruce D. Hammock, Laurel A Beckett, Marc B Schenker

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

18 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objective: Paraquat is an herbicide widely used worldwide. This study determined the extent of occupational exposure to paraquat among farm workers in Costa Rica and identified determinants of occupational exposure. Methods: Twenty-four hour urine samples were collected from 119 paraquat handlers and 54 non-handlers from banana, coffee and palm oil farms. Information about herbicide handling operations was also collected. The urinary paraquat levels were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 2 ng/mL. Inhalable dust and airborne paraquat levels were simultaneously measured for a subset of the participants. Results: Urinary paraquat measurements were non-detectable or very low when workers did not handle paraquat. For handlers, 83.3, 47.1 and 63.9% of the samples were below the LOQ on before-, during- and after-paraquat spray days, respectively. The arithmetic mean (±SD) of urinary paraquat level on days when workers handled paraquat was 6.3 (±10.45) μg/24 h. Paraquat exposures among handlers on spray day were significantly associated with the type of crop. Conclusion: Non-handlers had negligible urinary paraquat, while detectable paraquat exposures were observed among handlers on spray day. Urinary paraquat levels were different by crop.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)455-462
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Volume82
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 2009

Fingerprint

Paraquat
Occupational Exposure
Herbicides
Farmers
Farms
Costa Rica
Musa
Coffee
Dust

Keywords

  • Biological monitoring
  • Herbicide
  • Occupational exposure
  • Paraquat

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

Cite this

Occupational paraquat exposure of agricultural workers in large Costa Rican farms. / Lee, Kiyoung; Park, Eun Kee; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria; Koivunen, Marja E.; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.; Beckett, Laurel A; Schenker, Marc B.

In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, Vol. 82, No. 4, 2009, p. 455-462.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Lee, Kiyoung ; Park, Eun Kee ; Stoecklin-Marois, Maria ; Koivunen, Marja E. ; Gee, Shirley J. ; Hammock, Bruce D. ; Beckett, Laurel A ; Schenker, Marc B. / Occupational paraquat exposure of agricultural workers in large Costa Rican farms. In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 2009 ; Vol. 82, No. 4. pp. 455-462.
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