Occupational exposure to particulate matter and endotoxin for California dairy workers

Johnny Garcia, Deborah H Bennett, Daniel J Tancredi, Marc B Schenker, Diane Mitchell, Stephen J. Reynolds, Frank M. Mitloehner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Occupational exposure of dairy workers to particulate matter (PM) and endotoxin has been considered by some to be of potential concern. This paper reports personal exposure concentrations of PM (μg/m3) and endotoxin (EU/m3) for 226 workers from 13 California dairies. Arithmetic mean personal concentrations for PM2.5, inhalable PM and endotoxin were 48μg/m3 (N=222), 987μg/m3 (N=225) and 453EU/m3 (N=225), respectively. Using mixed effects models, time spent re-bedding of freestall barns versus any other job conducted on a dairy led to the highest exposure for PM2.5, inhalable PM, and endotoxin. Personal exposure concentrations were found to be greater than those reported for ambient area based concentrations at the same dairies. A pseudo R-square approach revealed that one area based measure combined with time spent performing tasks explained a significant portion of variation in personal exposure concentrations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)56-62
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2013


  • Agriculture
  • Concentrated animal feeding operations
  • Dairy
  • Endotoxin
  • Occupational exposure
  • PM

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health


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