Rayleigh-Plesset analysis, ultra-high speed photography, and single bubble acoustical recordings previously were applied independently to characterize the radial oscillation and resulting echoes from a mlcrobubble in response to an ultrasonic pulse. In addition, high-speed photography has shown that microbubbles are destroyed over a single pulse or pulse train by diffusion and fragmentation. In order to develop a single model to characterize microbubble echoes based on oscillatory and destructive characteristics, an optical-acoustical system was developed to simultaneously record the optical image and backscattered echo from each microbubble. Combined observation provides the opportunity to compare predictions for oscillation and echoes with experimental results and identify discrepancies due to diffusion or fragmentation. Optimization of agents and insonating pulse parameters may be facilitated with this system. The mean correlation of the predicted and experimental radius-time curves and echoes exceeds 0.7 for the parameters studied here. An important application of this new system is to record and analyze microbubble response to a long pulse in which diffusion is shown to occur over the pulse duration. The microbubble response to an increasing or decreasing chirp is evaluated using this new tool. For chirp insonatlon beginning with the lower center frequency, low-frequency modulation of the oscillation envelope was obvious. However, low-frequency modulation was not observed in the radial oscillation produced by decreasing chirp insonation. Comparison of the echoes from similar sized microbubbles following increasing and decreasing chirp insonation demonstrated that the echoes were not time-reversed replicas. Using a transmission pressure of 620 kPa, the -6 dB echo length was 0.9 and 1.1 μs for increasing and decreasing chirp insonation, respectively (P = 0.02). The mean power in the low-frequency portion of the echoes was 8 (mV)2 and 13 (mV)2 for increasing and decreasing chirp insonation, respectively (P = 0.01).
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||8|
|Journal||IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control|
|State||Published - Jun 2006|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Electrical and Electronic Engineering
- Acoustics and Ultrasonics