In cardiac myocytes Calmodulin (CaM) bound to the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) constitutes a large pool of total myocyte CaM, but the CaM-RyR2 affinity is reduced in pathological conditions. Knock-in mice expressing RyR2 unable to bind CaM also developed hypertrophy and early death. However, it is unknown whether CaM released from this RyR2-bound pool participates in pathological cardiac hypertrophy. We found that angiotensin II (AngII) or phenylephrine (PE) both cause CaM to dissociate from the RyR2 and translocate to the nucleus. To test whether this nuclear CaM accumulation depends on CaM released from RyR2, we enhanced CaM-RyR2 binding affinity (with dantrolene), or caused CaM dissociation from RyR2 (using suramin). Dantrolene dramatically reduced AngII- and PE-induced nuclear CaM accumulation. Conversely, suramin enhanced nuclear CaM accumulation. This is consistent with nuclear CaM accumulation coming largely from the CaM-RyR2 pool. CaM lacks a nuclear localization signal (NLS), but G-protein coupled receptor kinase 5 (GRK5) binds CaM, has a NLS and translocates like CaM in response to AngII or PE. Suramin also promoted GRK5 nuclear import, and caused nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5). Dantrolene prevented these effects. After 2–8 weeks of pressure overload (TAC) CaM binding to RyR2 was reduced, nuclear CaM and GRK5 were both elevated and there was enhanced nuclear export of HDAC5. Stress (acute AngII or TAC) causes CaM dissociation from RyR2 and translocation to the nucleus with GRK5 with parallel HDAC5 nuclear export. Thus CaM dissociation from RyR2 may be an important step in driving pathological hypertrophic gene transcription.
- Ryanodine receptor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine