Novel multi-component nanopharmaceuticals derived from poly(ethylene) glycol, retro-inverso-Tat nonapeptide and saquinavir demonstrate combined anti-HIV effects

Li Wan, Xiaoping Zhang, Simi Gunaseelan, Shahriar Pooyan, Olivia Debrah, Michael J Leibowitz, Arnold B. Rabson, Stanley Stein, Patrick J. Sinko

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

17 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Current anti-AIDS therapeutic agents and treatment regimens can provide a dramatically improved quality of life for HIV-positive people, many of whom have no detectable viral load for prolonged periods of time. Despite this, curing AIDS remains an elusive goal, partially due to the occurrence of drug resistance. Since the development of resistance is linked to, among other things, fluctuating drug levels, our long-term goal has been to develop nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems that can improve therapy by more precisely controlling drug concentrations in target cells. The theme of the current study is to investigate the value of combining AIDS drugs and modifiers of cellular uptake into macromolecular conjugates having novel pharmacological properties. Results: Bioconjugates were prepared from different combinations of the approved drug, saquinavir, the antiviral agent, R.I.CK-Tat9, the polymeric carrier, poly(ethylene) glycol and the cell uptake enhancer, biotin. Anti-HIV activities were measured in MT-2 cells, an HTLV-1-transformed human lymphoid cell line, infected with HIV-1 strain Vbu 3, while parallel studies were performed in uninfected cells to determine cellular toxicity. For example, R.I.CK-Tat9 was 60 times more potent than L-Tat9 while the addition of biotin resulted in a prodrug that was 2850 times more potent than L-Tat9. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy studies suggest that variations in intracellular uptake and intracellular localization, as well as synergistic inhibitory effects of SQV and Tat peptides, contributed to the unexpected and substantial differences in antiviral activity. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that highly potent nanoscale multi-drug conjugates with low non-specific toxicity can be produced by combining moieties with anti-HIV agents for different targets onto macromolecules having improved delivery properties.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number12
JournalAIDS Research and Therapy
Volume3
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 24 2006
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Virology
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmacology (medical)

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