Normalized glandular dose (DgN) coefficients for arbitrary x-ray spectra in mammography: Computer-fit values of Monte Carlo derived data

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Abstract

Normalized glandular dose (DgN) values have been reported by several investigators for specific spectra, however for unconventional or unanticipated x-ray spectra considered for use in mammography, practical methods are not available for DgN computation. In this study, the previously validated SIERRA Monte Carlo code was used to compute the normalized glandular dose coefficients for monoenergetic energies from 8 keV to 50 keV. The overall mammography geometry used was a 65 cm source to image distance, a 1.2 cm air gap between the breast and the detector, and breast thicknesses ranging from 2 to 9 cm. A 4 mm layer of skin was also modeled, and semicircular breast radii of 8.5 cm and 10.0 cm were studied. Breast compositions of 0% glandular, 50% glandular, and 100% glandular were evaluated. The Monte Carlo derived DgN results demonstrated coefficients of variation less than 0.3%. The monoenergetic DgN values, DgN(E), were computer fit using commercial software and the best fit equations are reported. All fits resulted in r2 values of 0.9999 or better. The computer fit equations, along with easy to use spectral modeling routines, are available electronically on the web.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)869-875
Number of pages7
JournalMedical Physics
Volume29
Issue number5
DOIs
StatePublished - 2002

Keywords

  • Computers
  • DgN
  • Glandular breast dose
  • Mammography
  • Monte Carlo

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics

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