Noninvasive biomarkers for prediction and diagnosis of heart transplantation rejection

Yeraz Khachatoorian, Vahe Khachadourian, Eleanor Chang, Erick R. Sernas, Elaine F. Reed, Mario Deng, Brian D. Piening, Alexandre C. Pereira, Brendan Keating, Martin Cadeiras

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations


For most patients with end-stage heart failure, heart transplantation is the treatment of choice. Allograft rejection is one of the major post-transplantation complications affecting graft outcome and survival. Recent advancements in science and technology offer an opportunity to integrate genomic and other omics-based biomarkers into clinical practice, facilitating noninvasive evaluation of allograft for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Omics, including gene expression profiling (GEP) of blood immune cell components and donor-derived cell-free DNA (dd-cfDNA) are of special interest to researchers. Several studies have investigated levels of dd-cfDNA and miroRNAs in blood as potential markers for early detection of allograft rejection. One of the achievements in the field of transcriptomics is AlloMap, GEP of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), which can identify 11 differentially expressed genes and help with detection of moderate and severe acute cellular rejection in stable heart transplant recipients. In recent years, the utilization of GEP of PBMC for identifying differentially expressed genes to diagnose acute antibody-mediated rejection and cardiac allograft vasculopathy has yielded promising results. Advancements in the field of metabolomics and proteomics as well as their potential implications have been further discussed in this paper.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100590
JournalTransplantation Reviews
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • Allograft rejection
  • Genomics
  • Heart transplantation
  • Omics-based biomarkers
  • Transcriptomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transplantation


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