Nonglycemic Effects of GLP-1 Agonists: From a Starling to Lizards to People

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3 Scopus citations


With the approval of exenatide in 2005, physicians had a new class of hypoglycemic agents available for the treatment of type 2 diabetes-the glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (or GLP-1 receptor agonists). As of this writing, there are seven drugs in this class available in the United States. In addition to demonstrating either cardiovascular risk neutrality or overt benefit, as now mandated by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA), many of these drugs have other, unexpected actions. It is our goal to outline these actions, some beneficial, some not. We have reviewed English-language articles in this area, not for an exhaustive study, but rather a broad search to define current understanding and perhaps generate further investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)303-313
Number of pages11
JournalMetabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jul 1 2019


  • appetite
  • blood pressure
  • GLP-1 agonists
  • secondary effects
  • type 2 diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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