Nondestructive subharmonic imaging

James Chomas, Paul Dayton, Donovan May, Katherine Ferrara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

133 Scopus citations


Ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles are intravascular agents that can be used to estimate blood perfusion. Blood perfusion may be estimated by destroying the bubbles in a vascular bed and observing the refresh of contrast agents back into the vascular bed. Contrast agents can be readily destroyed by traditional imaging techniques. The design of a nondestructive imaging technique is necessary for the accurate quantification of contrast agent refresh. In this work, subharmonic imaging is investigated as a method for nondestructive imaging with the contrast agent microbubble MP1950 (Mallinckrodt, Inc., St. Louis, MO). Optical observation during insonation, in conjunction with a modified Rayleigh-Plesset (R-P) analysis, provides insight into the mechanisms of and parameters required for subharmonic frequency generation. Subharmonic imaging with a transmission frequency that is the same as the resonant frequency of the bubble is shown to require a minimum pressure of insonation that is greater than the experimentally-observed bubble destruction threshold. Subharmonic imaging with a transmission frequency that is twice the resonant frequency of the bubble produces a subharmonic frequency response while minimizing bubble instability. Optimization is performed using optical experimental analysis and R-P analysis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)883-892
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics

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