Non-antimicrobial approaches for the prevention or treatment of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in cattle applicable to cow-calf operations: A scoping review

D. B. Sheedy, F. E. Samah, A. Garzon, E. Fausak, M. Van Noord, J. A. Angelos, G. U. Maier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is a common ocular disease in cattle that causes economic losses to producers and negatively impacts animal welfare. In a 2016 survey of cow-calf producers in California, IBK was identified as the disease for which antimicrobials are most frequently used. The presented scoping review examined the available literature for methods to prevent IBK and for alternatives to antimicrobials to treat the disease that can be applied in cow-calf operations. Online databases were searched for publications about IBK in cattle populations that were reported from 1950 to 2020. Citations were systematically evaluated in a multi-stage approach using commercial software and summarized in a scoping review format. For the studies included in the review, most research (n = 50) has focused on the development of vaccines for the prevention of IBK. Although the quality of publications has improved over time, there is a lack of consistent evidence for vaccine efficacy against IBK in post-2000 experimental and conventional vaccine trials. A systematic analysis of vaccine studies is warranted. A limited number (n = 6) of studies evaluated the prevention of IBK through fly control, where most have found efficacy of this control measure. Several treatment options (n = 5) that do not include the use of antimicrobials have been investigated but remain at the preliminary stage of testing. Differences in breed susceptibility has been demonstrated with breeds belonging to the Bos indicus subspecies less frequently affected compared to those belonging to the Bos taurus subspecies. Hereford cattle and those lacking pigmentation around the eyelid margin are more frequently affected than other breeds. At present, there are few evidence-based measures that producers can utilize to reduce the burden of IBK in their herds and more research into the efficacy of fly control measures, non-antimicrobial treatment options, the continued search for a viable vaccine, as well as identifying genetic markers associated with traits that confer resistance to the disease are needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100245
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2021


  • Breed susceptibility
  • Fly control
  • Moraxella bovis
  • Pinkeye
  • Vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology


Dive into the research topics of 'Non-antimicrobial approaches for the prevention or treatment of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis in cattle applicable to cow-calf operations: A scoping review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this