Background: Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) is risk factors for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). In children with T2D and liver biopsies, we investigated correlations between NAFLD/NASH and transaminase activity, A1c, lipids, and histologic changes in repeat biopsies. Methods: Liver histology of children with T2D was evaluated using the NASH CRN scoring system and NAFLD Activity Score (NAS). We included results ≤6 months from biopsy and A1c nearest biopsy. Results: Thirty-eight subjects (21 females, 17 males, 63.2% Hispanic, 15.8% Caucasian) had T2D diagnosed at 13.4 ± 2.7 years, 78.9% using metformin and 50% on insulin. Histological diagnosis of NAFLD occurred at mean age 14.3 ± 2.3 years, notable for NASH in 61%. Steatosis grade was higher in children with NASH than those without (mean 2.6 ± 0.7 vs 2.1 ± 0.5 (P < 0.001). Stage 3 fibrosis was noted only in subjects with NASH (26%). ALT was higher in NASH vs those without (112 ± 56 vs 85 ± 112, P = 0.016). NAS correlated with A1c (r = 0.51, P < 0.01) and triglycerides (r = 0.5, P < 0.01), and inversely with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (r = −0.42, P = 0.04). Males had lower HDL and higher triglycerides (P < 0.04). In eight subjects with repeat biopsies, NAS was equal (37.5%) or improved (62.5%), and steatosis decreased (68.1% to 32.8%, P = 0.027). Conclusions: In children with T2D and NAFLD, NASH is common. Having advanced fibrosis in 26% of NASH cases at this age is concerning. Better control of lipids, weight, and diabetes may help avoid worsening in NAS.
- non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
- type 2 diabetes
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Internal Medicine
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism