Nocturnal microhabitat distribution of adult Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) impacts control effectiveness

Hugh D. Lothrop, Branka Lothrop, William Reisen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Suction traps (30 cm diameter) were more effective for non-attractant sampling of flying adult Culex tarsalis Coquillett than were smaller CDC (5.5 cm diameter), Malaise or ramp traps. Comparative catch in suction traps operated in a variety of vegetation types indicated that females congregated along elevated ecotones and were significantly less abundant flying over low vegetation or under and over elevated vegetation. Most females taken at upland orchards or Tamarisk tree lines were unfed (97%, n = 5,278) and similar in reproductive condition to host-seeking females. Blood fed and gravid females and males were only abundant near emergence sites. Pyrocide 7396 (Pyrethrin 5%, PBO 25%) was applied at the label rate of 5 oz/ min by truck mounted Pro-Mist ultra low volume (ULV) equipment and particle drift measured by bioassay. ULV particles dispersed well downwind over low vegetation, between citrus orchard rows, and under date orchard canopy, but did not penetrate citrus orchards or vineyards when rows were perpendicular to wind direction. Particles did move up and over vegetation contacting sentinel mosquitoes placed above the canopy. The congregation of adult mosquitoes at vegetative ecotones and within orchard vegetation may afford protection from ground applied ULV particles, negatively impacting control. These data may explain why repeated applications often fail to interrupt encephalitis virus transmission.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)574-582
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Medical Entomology
Volume39
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2002

Fingerprint

Culex tarsalis
Culex
Culicidae
Diptera
microhabitats
orchards
vegetation
Citrus
suction traps
Suction
ecotones
Tamaricaceae
Encephalitis Viruses
flight
Pyrethrins
Architectural Accessibility
canopy
Motor Vehicles
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (U.S.)
host seeking

Keywords

  • Adult control
  • Culex
  • Microdistribution
  • Non-attractant traps
  • Pyrethrum
  • Ultra low volume

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • veterinary(all)
  • Insect Science
  • Infectious Diseases

Cite this

Nocturnal microhabitat distribution of adult Culex tarsalis (Diptera : Culicidae) impacts control effectiveness. / Lothrop, Hugh D.; Lothrop, Branka; Reisen, William.

In: Journal of Medical Entomology, Vol. 39, No. 4, 01.01.2002, p. 574-582.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{3e58c0bd315a47299a1f04c00d06a266,
title = "Nocturnal microhabitat distribution of adult Culex tarsalis (Diptera: Culicidae) impacts control effectiveness",
abstract = "Suction traps (30 cm diameter) were more effective for non-attractant sampling of flying adult Culex tarsalis Coquillett than were smaller CDC (5.5 cm diameter), Malaise or ramp traps. Comparative catch in suction traps operated in a variety of vegetation types indicated that females congregated along elevated ecotones and were significantly less abundant flying over low vegetation or under and over elevated vegetation. Most females taken at upland orchards or Tamarisk tree lines were unfed (97{\%}, n = 5,278) and similar in reproductive condition to host-seeking females. Blood fed and gravid females and males were only abundant near emergence sites. Pyrocide 7396 (Pyrethrin 5{\%}, PBO 25{\%}) was applied at the label rate of 5 oz/ min by truck mounted Pro-Mist ultra low volume (ULV) equipment and particle drift measured by bioassay. ULV particles dispersed well downwind over low vegetation, between citrus orchard rows, and under date orchard canopy, but did not penetrate citrus orchards or vineyards when rows were perpendicular to wind direction. Particles did move up and over vegetation contacting sentinel mosquitoes placed above the canopy. The congregation of adult mosquitoes at vegetative ecotones and within orchard vegetation may afford protection from ground applied ULV particles, negatively impacting control. These data may explain why repeated applications often fail to interrupt encephalitis virus transmission.",
keywords = "Adult control, Culex, Microdistribution, Non-attractant traps, Pyrethrum, Ultra low volume",
author = "Lothrop, {Hugh D.} and Branka Lothrop and William Reisen",
year = "2002",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1603/0022-2585-39.4.574",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "39",
pages = "574--582",
journal = "Journal of Medical Entomology",
issn = "0022-2585",
publisher = "Entomological Society of America",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Nocturnal microhabitat distribution of adult Culex tarsalis (Diptera

T2 - Culicidae) impacts control effectiveness

AU - Lothrop, Hugh D.

AU - Lothrop, Branka

AU - Reisen, William

PY - 2002/1/1

Y1 - 2002/1/1

N2 - Suction traps (30 cm diameter) were more effective for non-attractant sampling of flying adult Culex tarsalis Coquillett than were smaller CDC (5.5 cm diameter), Malaise or ramp traps. Comparative catch in suction traps operated in a variety of vegetation types indicated that females congregated along elevated ecotones and were significantly less abundant flying over low vegetation or under and over elevated vegetation. Most females taken at upland orchards or Tamarisk tree lines were unfed (97%, n = 5,278) and similar in reproductive condition to host-seeking females. Blood fed and gravid females and males were only abundant near emergence sites. Pyrocide 7396 (Pyrethrin 5%, PBO 25%) was applied at the label rate of 5 oz/ min by truck mounted Pro-Mist ultra low volume (ULV) equipment and particle drift measured by bioassay. ULV particles dispersed well downwind over low vegetation, between citrus orchard rows, and under date orchard canopy, but did not penetrate citrus orchards or vineyards when rows were perpendicular to wind direction. Particles did move up and over vegetation contacting sentinel mosquitoes placed above the canopy. The congregation of adult mosquitoes at vegetative ecotones and within orchard vegetation may afford protection from ground applied ULV particles, negatively impacting control. These data may explain why repeated applications often fail to interrupt encephalitis virus transmission.

AB - Suction traps (30 cm diameter) were more effective for non-attractant sampling of flying adult Culex tarsalis Coquillett than were smaller CDC (5.5 cm diameter), Malaise or ramp traps. Comparative catch in suction traps operated in a variety of vegetation types indicated that females congregated along elevated ecotones and were significantly less abundant flying over low vegetation or under and over elevated vegetation. Most females taken at upland orchards or Tamarisk tree lines were unfed (97%, n = 5,278) and similar in reproductive condition to host-seeking females. Blood fed and gravid females and males were only abundant near emergence sites. Pyrocide 7396 (Pyrethrin 5%, PBO 25%) was applied at the label rate of 5 oz/ min by truck mounted Pro-Mist ultra low volume (ULV) equipment and particle drift measured by bioassay. ULV particles dispersed well downwind over low vegetation, between citrus orchard rows, and under date orchard canopy, but did not penetrate citrus orchards or vineyards when rows were perpendicular to wind direction. Particles did move up and over vegetation contacting sentinel mosquitoes placed above the canopy. The congregation of adult mosquitoes at vegetative ecotones and within orchard vegetation may afford protection from ground applied ULV particles, negatively impacting control. These data may explain why repeated applications often fail to interrupt encephalitis virus transmission.

KW - Adult control

KW - Culex

KW - Microdistribution

KW - Non-attractant traps

KW - Pyrethrum

KW - Ultra low volume

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0036634469&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0036634469&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1603/0022-2585-39.4.574

DO - 10.1603/0022-2585-39.4.574

M3 - Article

C2 - 12144287

AN - SCOPUS:0036634469

VL - 39

SP - 574

EP - 582

JO - Journal of Medical Entomology

JF - Journal of Medical Entomology

SN - 0022-2585

IS - 4

ER -