Nitrolinoleate, a nitric oxide-derived mediator of cell function: Synthesis, characterization, and vasomotor activity

Dong Gun Lim, Scott Sweeney, Allison Bloodsworth, C. Roger White, Phillip H. Chumley, N. Rama Krishna, Francisco Schopfer, Valerie B. O'Donnell, Jason P. Eiserich, Bruce A. Freeman

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104 Scopus citations


Nitric oxide (*NO) and *NO-derived reactive species rapidly react with lipids during both autocatalytic and enzymatic oxidation reactions to yield nitrated derivatives that serve as cell signaling molecules. Herein we report the synthesis, purification, characterization, and bioactivity of nitrolinoleate (LNO2). Nitroselenylation of linoleic acid yielded LNO2 that was purified by solvent extraction, silicic acid chromatography, and reverse-phase HPLC. Structural characterization was performed by IR spectroscopy, 15N-NMR, LC-negative ion electrospray mass spectroscopy (MS), and chemiluminescent nitrogen analysis. Quantitative MS analysis of cell and vessel LNO2 metabolism, using L[15N]O2 as an internal standard, revealed that LNO2 is rapidly metabolized by rat aortic smooth muscle (RASM) monolayers and rat thoracic aorta, resulting in nitrite production and up to 3-fold increases in cGMP (ED50 = 30 μM for RASM, 50 μM for aorta). LNO2 induced endothelium-independent relaxation of preconstricted rat aortic rings, which was unaffected by LG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester addition and inhibited by the guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazole[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one and the *NO scavenger HbO2. These results reveal that synthetic LNO2, identical to lipid derivatives produced biologically by the reaction of * NO and *NO-derived species with oxidizing unsaturated fatty acids (e.g., linoleate), can transduce vascular signaling actions of *NO.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)15941-15946
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number25
StatePublished - Dec 10 2002

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics
  • General


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