The interaction of the ubiquitous Na+/H+ exchanger, NHE1, with its commonly used inhibitors, amiloride- and benzoylguanidine (Hoechst type inhibitor (HOE))-type compounds, is incompletely understood. We previously cloned NHE1 from Amphiuma tridactylum (AtNHE1) and Pleuronectes americanus (PaNHE1). Although highly homologous to the amiloride- and HOE-sensitive human NHE1 (hNHE1), AtNHE1 is insensitive to HOE-type and PaNHE1 to both amiloride- and HOE-type compounds. Here we generated chimeras to "knock in" amiloride and HOE sensitivity to PaNHE1, and we thereby identified several NHE1 regions involved in inhibitor interaction. The markedly different inhibitor sensitivities of hNHE1, AtNHE1, and PaNHE1 could not be accounted for by differences in transmembrane (TM) region 9. Replacing TM10 through the C-terminal tail of PaNHE1 with the corresponding region of AtNHE1 partially restored sensitivity to amiloride and the related compound 5′-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA) but not to HOE694. This effect was not due to the tail region, but it was dependent on TM10-11, because replacing only this region with that of AtNHE1 also partially restored amiloride and EIPA but not HOE sensitivity. The converse mutant (TM10-11 of AtNHE1 replaced with those of PaNHE1) exhibited even higher amiloride and EIPA sensitivity and was also HOE-sensitive. Replacing an LFFFY motif in TM region 4 of PaNHE1 with the corresponding residues of hNHE1 (VFFLF) or AtNHE1 (TFFLF) greatly increased sensitivity to both amiloride- and HOE-type compounds, despite the fact that AtNHE1 is HOE694-insensitive. Gain of amiloride sensitivity appeared to correlate with increased Na+/H+ exchange rates. It is concluded that regions within TM4 and TM10-11 contribute to amiloride and HOE sensitivity, with both regions imparting partial inhibitor sensitivity to NHE1.
ASJC Scopus subject areas